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Unformatted text preview: M12 Buckling of Simple Columns
Reading Crandall, Dahl and Lardner: 9.4
Now extend the idea of elastic instabilities to a continuous structural member.
Model of a column
A column is a slender structural member that carries axial compressive loads.
(a) Geometry – identical to a beam, long, straight, slender, symmetric crosssection etc. L >> b, h
(b) Loading – axial compressive axial forces (c.) Deformations
At low loads  same as a rod, axial (x) stresses, axial deformation only
At higher loads  buckling deflection (transverse) governed by bending relations
d 2w M
i.e.,
=
2
EI dx † deflected shape: Draw free body diagram of deflected column: From equilibrium: HA=P, VA=VB=0
We can now use method of sections, by taking a “cut” at an arbitrary x position (as for a
beam) By equilibrium + Â Fx = 0 Æ
Â Fy = 0 ↑ + P + F = 0 ﬁ F = P
S=0 ÂMA =0 + M  Fw( x ) = 0
M + Pw( x ) = 0 Substitute for the moment, M, using the momentcurvature relationship, obtain second
order differential equation †
EI d 2w
dx 2 + Pw = 0 Stabilizing
†(restoring) Tends to destabilize compressive load
as w increases This is the governing differential equation for Euler buckling (buckling of simple
columns)
Solution to Euler buckling w = e lx
rewrite as: d 2†
w P
w=0
2
EI
dx
P
l2 e lx + e lx = 0
EI
P
P
l2 =
Æ l±
i
EI
EI † † + where i = † † 1 (recall from 18.03) The physical significance of this solution will be more apparent if we express as sine and
cosine terms. Hence we can express the complete homogeneous solution as: w = A sin † P
P
x + B cos
x + Cx + D
EI
EI For the simply supported case: at x=0, M=0 (pinned supports) M = EI
d 2w
† dx 2 d 2w
dx 2 =0ﬁ d 2w
dx 2 = A P
P
P
P
sin
x  B cos
x
EI
EI
EI
EI ( x = 0) = 0 ﬁ B = 0 and w=0 at x=0 † w = 0 = +B + D
\D = 0 †
† Similarly at x=L w( x = L ) = 0 ﬁ + A sin
d 2w † † dx 2 (x = L) = 0 ﬁ  A P
L + CL = 0
EI
P
P
sin
L =0
EI
EI ÊPˆ
So: A sinÁ
L˜ = 0 ﬁ C = 0
Ë EI ¯
This is satisfied if A=0, but this is not very interesting. † which leaves: sin P
L =0ﬁ
EI P
L = np
EI
integer Thus buckling occurs if: † 22
P = n p2 EI L and the deformed shape w = A sin † npx
L Note: A is not uniquely
defined n=1 †
Higher modes (n>1) only
achieved if first mode is
restrained n =2
n=3
the lowest value is the critical buckling load Pcrit = p 2 EI
L2 Other boundary conditions provide other values for A, B, C, & D, but the solution is
always of the form: † w = A sin P
P
x + B cos
x + Cx + D
EI
EI and the buckling load has the form: Pcr = † cp2 EI
L2 Simply supported c= 1 Clampedfree c=1/4 clampedclamped c= 4 Effect of Initial Imperfections on Buckling
Up to now we have considered the column to be initially straight and loaded along its
axis. In reality a structure and its loading will never match these idealizations. Small
deviations from ideal do not matter when we are considering the behavior of beams,
shafts and rods in tensions, however they are quite important in determining elastic
instabilities. There are two types of imperfection that commonly occur.
1.) 2.) Shape  initial deflection, w0(x) (exaggerated) Load eccentricity, loads applied a distance e from the neutral axis Cases (1) and (2) are both handled in the same way, set up governing differential
equation and solve with solution of form: w = A sin P
P
x + B cos
x + Cx + D
EI
EI But these initial imperfections introduce new boundary conditions
Consider case (2)
†
e.g., at x = 0, L M = Pe
x=0
w=0
w= B+ D=0 †
†
† M = EI d 2w
dx 2 = Pe = EI P
B
EI Hence B = e, D =+ e † x=L
M = EI w=0
2 dw
dx 2 = Pe †
Solving for A: † d 2w
P
P
P
P
M = EI
= Pe =  AEI Sin
L + EI eCos
L
EI
EI
EI
EI
dx 2
Hence † ÊÈ
P˘ˆ
eÁÍCos
L ˙  1˜
EI ˚ ¯
ËÎ
A=
P
Sin
L
EI Note: A is now defined Solving for C: † ÊÈ
P˘ˆ
eÁÍCos
L ˙  1˜
EI ˚ ¯
P
P
ËÎ
w( L ) = 0 =
Sin
L  eCos
L + CL + e
EI
EI
P
Sin
L
EI
w( L ) = 0 = CL hence C = 0 †
† combining Ê
ˆ
P
L
Á1  cos
˜
EI sin P x + cos P x  1˜
w = eÁ
EI
EI
Á sin P L
˜
Á
˜
Ë
¯
EI
now obtain finite values of w for all values of P † P
Pcrit = p 2 EI
L2 † Increasing e/L w u3 This behavior is similar to the case we considered in M10/M11 – of the axially loaded
rigid rod with the torsional spring at one end. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2012 for the course AERO 16.01 taught by Professor Markdrela during the Fall '05 term at MIT.
 Fall '05
 MarkDrela

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