p288_02_w11_nq - PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011...

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Unformatted text preview: PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011 Lecture 2 Musical Notation Scales and Intervals A Note on Your Homework • Homework #1 is due this Wednesday • Don’t lose points! Make it easy for the grader to understand what you have to say – Explain the logic behind your solution (clear and simple explanations are the best) – Write your solution neatly – If possible, put a box around your answer How to Read Sheet Music • Let’s have a look Musical Notation • The piano keyboard • C major scale – do re mi fa so la ti do • Represent different pitches by placing notes on a staff Middle C Concert A treble clef Musical Notation • The piano keyboard • C major scale – do re mi fa so la ti do • Represent different pitches by placing notes on a staff Middle C bass clef The Black Keys • The modern chromatic scale is a 12-tone scale • The A major scale F-sharp and G-flat Key signature: these notes are always sharp unless noted The Labeling of Octaves • Sometimes we need to specify pitches without writing out a staff • The lowest key on the piano is A , and the highest is C 8 Middle C C 3 . . . C 6 . . . C 4 D 4 E 4 F 4 G 4 A 4 B 4 C 5 octave 5 octave 4 octave 3 Scientific pitch notation Timing and Tempo • Musical notation specifies both pitch and time • The basic unit is one beat • Time signature: specifies beats/measure and what note gets one beat • Measure: arranges beats into groups Time Pitch quarter note = 1 beat half note = 2 beats “common time” or 4/4 one measure Duration Note Rest Name 4 beats whole note 2 beats half note 1 beat quarter note 1/2 beat eighth note 1/4 beat sixteenth note 1/8 beat 1/32 note Duration of Notes Time Signatures • Standard time signatures 4 / 4 or Four beats per measure Quarter note = 1 beat 3 / 4 Three beats per measure Quarter note = 1 beat 2 / 4 Two beats per measure Quarter note = 1 beat 6 / 8 Six beats per measure Eighth note = 1 beat How many beats in a measure Which note gets one beat Tempo • Tempo is measured in beats per minute (BPM) – 60 BPM = 1 beat per second or 1 second between beats – 120 BPM = 2 beats per second or 0.5 seconds between beats Beats per second = Beats per minute 60 Seconds between beats = 1 Beats per second = 60 Beats per minute Tempo Beats per minute Largo 40 – 60 Adagio 66 – 76 Andante 76 – 108 Moderato 108 – 120 Allegro 120 – 168 Presto 168 – 200 Third problem on HW #1 • A typical beat is about 1 second...
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p288_02_w11_nq - PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011...

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