p288_03_w11_nq - PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011...

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PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011 Lecture 3 The scientific method The nature of sound
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Simplified Western History Timeline • Harmonious intervals • The Pythagorean scale – Based on 1 2 3 4 • Major third: 5/4 • The Ptolemaic scale – Based on 1 2 3 4 5 600 BCE 0 BCE 600 CE Greeks Pythagoras 530 BCE Crotona school Arithmetic, Geometry Astronomy, Music Ptolemy 140 CE Astronomy Music Fall of Rome 476 CE Not widely used until the late middle ages
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Plato’s problem for his students : explain why planets move in irregular looped paths, against background of stars that “obviously” move around the earth once a day in circles A hard problem ! Standing on earth and watching the sun, how could you tell? Astronomy in the 4th Century BCE Geocentric (earth centered) Heliocentric (sun centered) Aristotle (340 BCE) Aristarchus (240 BCE) Earth rotates Earth moves around sun No detailed argument Two lines of thinking Ptolemy (2 nd century CE) A real model But we would now say it was “contrived”
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Ptolemaic System of Planetary Motion Circles and epicycles Had to be very complex!
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Simplified Western History Timeline Middle (dark) ages – knowledge preserved and advanced in the Arab World 600 BCE 0 BCE 600 CE Greeks Pythagoras 530 BCE Crotona school Arithmetic, Geometry Astronomy , Music Ptolemy 140 CE Astronomy Music Fall of Rome 476 CE Renaissance 1450 Rapid development of the arts and sciences European universities founded Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy , Music 600 CE 1200 1800 Scientific method
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Renaissance Renaissance Time Chart A time of rapid progress in both the arts and sciences
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Plato’s problem for his students : explain why planets move in irregular looped paths, against background of stars that “obviously” move around the earth once a day in circles A hard problem ! Standing on earth and watching the sun, how could you tell? Astronomy in the 16th Century Geocentric (earth centered) Heliocentric (sun centered) Aristotle (340 BCE) Aristarchus (240 BCE) Earth rotates Earth moves around sun No detailed argument Two lines of thinking Ptolemy (2 nd century CE) A real model But we would now say it was “contrived” Copernicus (1473-1543) Another real model but simple and elegant
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Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 Born and mostly lived in Prussian Poland Sought simplicity and beauty of uniform circular motion - found a way! Also a humble and compassionate man
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The Copernican System Heliocentric model - start of the Copernican revolution From Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres , 1543 Legend has it that Copernicus first saw his published work on the day of his death
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But is this just a pretty system or reality? Explanations for Epicycles
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p288_03_w11_nq - PAT 102/Physics 288/489 Winter 2011...

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