BSCI 105 Lecture_6 Carbohydrates and Lipids

BSCI 105 Lecture_6 - Overview The Molecules of Life • All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules carbohydrates

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Unformatted text preview: Overview: The Molecules of Life • All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids • Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules • Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms • Molecular structure and function are inseparable Fig. 5-1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers • A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks • These small building-block molecules are called monomers • Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Nucleic acids • A condensation reaction or more specifically a dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule • Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process • Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis , a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Fig. 5-2a Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 (a) Fig. 5-2b Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 (b) The Diversity of Polymers • Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules • Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species • An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers 2 3 HO H Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material • Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars • The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or single sugars • Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks Sugars • Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH 2 O • Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide •...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course BSCI 105 taught by Professor Jensen during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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BSCI 105 Lecture_6 - Overview The Molecules of Life • All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules carbohydrates

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