BSCI 105 Lecture 3 Chemistry

BSCI 105 Lecture 3 Chemistry - Matter consists of chemical...

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Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds Organisms are composed of matter Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass
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Elements and Compounds Matter is made up of elements An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements
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Fig. 2-3 Sodium Chlorine Sodium chloride
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Essential Elements of Life About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur Trace elements are those required by an organism in minute quantities
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Table 2-1
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(a) Nitrogen deficiency Fig. 2-4 (b) Iodine deficiency
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An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Each element consists of unique atoms An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
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Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Relevant subatomic particles include: Neutrons (no electrical charge) Protons (positive charge) Electrons (negative charge)
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Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Fig. 2-5 Nucleus Electrons (b) (a)
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Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atoms of the various elements differ in number of subatomic particles An element’s atomic number is the number of protons in its nucleus An element’s mass number is the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus Atomic mass , the atom’s total mass, can be approximated by the mass number
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Isotopes All atoms of an element have the same number of protons but may differ in number of neutrons Isotopes are two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons Radioactive isotopes decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
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Some applications of radioactive isotopes in biological research are: Dating fossils Tracing atoms through metabolic processes Diagnosing medical disorders
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Fig. 2-6 TECHNIQUE RESULTS Compounds including radioactive tracer (bright blue) Incubator s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10°C 15°C 20°C 25°C 30°C 35°C 40°C 45°C 50°C 1 2 3
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2012 for the course BSCI 105 taught by Professor Jensen during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.

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BSCI 105 Lecture 3 Chemistry - Matter consists of chemical...

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