Quality - DS 412 Operations Management Quality Management...

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DS 412 Operations Management Quality Management and Control
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What is Quality? Quality: A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: 1. the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; 2. a product or service free of deficiencies. Source: American Society for Quality h ttp://www.asq.org/glossary/q.html. The ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations Several techniques have evolved to improve product and service quality. –. Statistical Process Control –. Total Quality Management –. Zero Defects –. Six Sigma
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Other Interpretations W.E. Deming - "Costs go down and productivity goes up, as improvement of quality is accomplished by better management of design, engineering, testing and by improvement of processes. Better quality at lower price has a chance to capture a market. Cutting costs without improvement of quality is futile." Genichi Tuguchi " The loss a product imposes on society after it is shipped". Joseph Juran - “fitness for use;” Philip Crosby - “conformance to requirements.” Philip Crosby
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Characteristics of Quality Measurable: Product or service specifications or required characteristics (weight, length, thickness, strength, etc. Note that defects occur when the product does not meet specifications Time related dimensions such as dependability, maintainability, speed and flexibility Commercial factors such as warranties and service Non-measurable: Comfort, aesthetics, ethical issues (honesty, trustworthiness)
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Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC): Two terms that have multiple definitions ( http://www.asq.org/glossary/q.html) One definition of Q uality Assurance is: “all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements for quality.” One definition for Q uality Control is: “the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality”. Note that Q uality Assurance and Q uality Control are used interchangeably. They, refer to the process implemented and the actions performed that ensure the quality of a product or service.
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Phases of Quality Assurance Inputs Transformation Process Outputs Receiving Inspection Process control Final Inspection Analysis of Defects When to Inspect? Raw materials and purchased parts Finished products Before a costly operation Before an irreversible process
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Inspection: How much/How often? Cost Optimal Amount of Inspection Cost of inspection Cost of passing defectives Total Cost
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Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control : Statistical evaluation of the output of a process during production Control Chart Purpose: to monitor process output to see if it is random.
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Quality - DS 412 Operations Management Quality Management...

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