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01_basic_skills_10

01_basic_skills_10 - Review of basic skills This PowerPoint...

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cture 1: 1 Review of basic skills This PowerPoint presentation contains a review of the following topics: Scientific notation Unit conversions Maps, cross sections, and block diagrams Graphs and charts World geography For more information on these topics, Google the above phrases.
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cture 1: 2 Scientific notation Which of these is the largest quantity? A. 150,000,000 kg B. 1.5x10 9 kg C. 3.5x10 -9 kg The last two potential answers are in scientific notation, which is useful for dealing with very small and very large numbers, both of which are common in geology (see next 2 slides). The correct answer is B. In A, the equivalent number is 1.5x10 8 kg; in C, the negative exponent indicates a very small number.
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cture 1: 3 Big numbers: sizes of natural features 10 4 =10x10x10x10=10,000 m 10 13 = 10,000,000,000,000 m
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cture 1: 4 Small numbers: sizes of natural features 10 -1 =1/10 1 =0.1 m 10 -2 =1/(10x10)=0.01 m 10 -9 =0.000000001 m
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cture 1: 5 Scientific notation Powers of 10 Billion = 1,000,000,000.0 = 10 9 (giga-) (G) Million = 1,000,000.0 = 10 6 (mega-) (M) Thousand = 1,000.0 = 10 3 (kilo-) (k) Hundred = 100.0 = 10 2 (hecto-) (h) Ten = 10.0 = 10 1 (deca-) (da) One = 1.0 = 10 0 One-tenth = 0.1 = 10 -1 (deci-) (d) One-hundredth = 0.01 = 10 -2 (centi-) (c) One-thousandth = 0.001 = 10 -3 (milli-) (m) One-millionth = 0.0000001 = 10 -6 (micro-) ( μ ) One-billionth = 0.0000000001 = 10 -9 (nano-) (n) Examples: A km is a thousand meters. A cm is one-hundredth of a meter.
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cture 1: 6 240,000,000,000. Scientific notation: large numbers Convert 240,000,000,000 to scientific notation. 1. Add a decimal point to the number to be converted. 240,000,000,000. 2. Count the number of decimal places from the current decimal point to that between the first two digits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3. Use the number obtained in part 2 as the exponent in the scientific notation. Standard scientific notation places the decimal point between the first two digits. 2.4x10 11
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cture 1: 7 1.3000000 Scientific notation: large numbers Convert 1.3x10 5 to a conventional number 1. Add some extra zeroes to the number to be converted. 1.3000000 2. Count over five decimal places to the right 1 3. Write the number with the decimal point in the correct spot. Drop any unnecessary zeroes. Add commas, where appropriate. 2 3 4 5 130,000.
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cture 1: 8 0.0000000067 Scientific notation: small numbers Convert 0.0000000067 to scientific notation.
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