05_metamorphic_10_post

05_metamorphic_10_post - 05 Earth M aterials 3 M etamorphic...

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cture 5: cture 5: 1 05: Earth Materials 3 Metamorphic Rocks & Rock Cycle Metamorphic rock : rock that changed from its original form into a new one, without first becoming a melt or sediment. Dalradian Gneiss, Isle of Arran, Scotland. Photo: P.L. Kresan
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cture 5: cture 5: 2 Why this is important Regionally extensive metamorphic rocks indicate past episodes of plate convergence and mountain-building Fig. 8.21 Fig. 8.21
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cture 5: cture 5: 3 Why this is important Assemblage of metamorphic minerals tells us about the Assemblage of metamorphic minerals tells us about the pressure and temperature conditions at the time of pressure and temperature conditions at the time of metamorphism, conditions we can never observe directly. metamorphism, conditions we can never observe directly. Photo: P.L. Kresan
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cture 5: cture 5: 4 Definition of Metamorphism Changes in mineral assemblage and rock texture that occur in rocks IN THE SOLID STATE as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, and effects of chemically reactive fluids. Fig. 8.2 Fig. 8.2 Approximately circular Approximately circular grains in a limestone (top) grains in a limestone (top) and sandstone (bottom) and sandstone (bottom) have become elliptical. have become elliptical.
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cture 5: cture 5: 5 Definition of Metamorphism Changes in mineral assemblage and rock texture that occur in rocks IN THE SOLID STATE as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, and effects of chemically reactive fluids. Recrystallization Recrystallization : rearrange atoms in the crystalline : rearrange atoms in the crystalline lattice. lattice.
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cture 5: cture 5: 6 Definition of Metamorphism Changes in mineral assemblage and rock texture that occur in rocks IN THE SOLID STATE as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, and effects of chemically reactive fluids. Recrystallization Recrystallization : rearrange atoms in the crystalline lattice (due to : rearrange atoms in the crystalline lattice (due to pressure, in this case).
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cture 5: cture 5: 7 Controlling factors Heat 1. Permits recrystallization 2. Supplied by burial (temperature increases with depth) or igneous intrusions Fig. 8.23 Fig. 8.23
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cture 5: cture 5: 8 Graph (phase diagram) shows the range of temperatures and pressures at Graph (phase diagram) shows the range of temperatures and pressures at which the three minerals (which have the same chemical composition, Al which the three minerals (which have the same chemical composition, Al 2 SiO SiO 3 , , but different crystalline structure) would form in metamorphic rocks. but different crystalline structure) would form in metamorphic rocks. Controlling factors Temperature & pressure: mineralogic changes Fig. 8.3 Fig. 8.3
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cture 5: cture 5: 9 Exercise / iClicker Q1. For a pressure of 8 kbar, what must be the temperature for both kyanite and sillimanite to be present?
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