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# spl8b - Planform and Dihedral Considerations Figure 1...

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Planform and Dihedral Considerations Figure 1 compars the span eﬃciency of wings with three types of taper and no washout twist. The additional benefit of going from a single taper to double taper is very modest, and has to be weighed against greater structural complexity. e = 0.960 e = 0.989 e = 0.997 constant chord double taper Γ Γ Γ λ=0.6 λ=0.6 single taper Figure 1: Span eﬃciency of three different planform untwisted wings. Dashed lines are elliptical loadings with the same lift. A meaningful way to define the taper ratio λ for a multi-taper wing is in terms of the root chord c r and average chord c . 2 c c r = c λ = 2 1 1+ λ c r This λ definition reduces to the usual definition λ = c t /c r for a straight-taper wing. Because the root chord c r dominates the structural bending properties of a wing, any two wings with the same area, span, and λ values will likely have
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