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Unformatted text preview: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Cambridge, MA 02139 16.03/16.04 Unified Engineering III, IV Spring 2004 Problem Set 2 Time Spent (min) F3 F4 F5 Name: F6 Due Date: 2/17/04 M3 M4 M5 M6 Study Time Announcements: Have a happy Valentine’s Day. Remember that Tuesday, 2/17 is a Monday schedule. Spring 2004 Unified Engineering Fluids Problems F3–F6 F3+F4. A symmetric airfoil has a trailing edge flap, with the hinge at xh /c = 0.75, with the flap set at some small downward deflection angle ∂ . a) Define and sketch the camberline-slope dZ/dx, both versus x and versus α . b) Use Thin Airfoil Theory to determine the airfoil’s c� and cm,c/4 , as functions of � and ∂ . c) Important quantities for an airplane-control designer are the flap control derivatives �c� �∂ , � cm,c/4 �∂ Determine these for the present flapped airfoil. Note: You may wish to check your results with Xfoil. The GDES menu allows you to set a flap deflection. F5. An experimentalist determines that the downwash velocity for a rectangular wing of span b approximately obeys the relation w= L 2π V� b2 a) Assuming w is constant across the span, determine how CDi depends on CL for this wing. b) Determine the wing’s CL (�) relation, and compare its dCL /d� to the 2-D value of 2� . Hint: Start with the relation CL = 2��eff . F6. Anderson Chapter 5, p 416. Problems 1. and 2. (closely related). Unified Engineering Spring 2004 Problem M3 Draw loading, shear and bending moment diagrams for the following beam under the loading shown. Label all key values (i.e. where changes in magnitude or slope occur). Maintain the convention shown below for positive shear forces and bending moments: Problem M4 The spar in a wing is modeled as a 10 m long beam. The combination of lift and self-weight is modeled as resulting in a load distribution varying linearly from 5kN/m at the root to zero at the tip. The beam has a rectangular cross section, height, h, of 100 mm and breadth, b, of 50 mm. Calculate the maximum bending stress in the beam, stating its location(s) and calculate the deflection of the tip of the beam Problem M5 A simply supported beam, length 3L, is loaded by a load P applied at a distance of L from the left hand end. The beam has a flexural stiffness EI. a) Calculate the deflection of the beam as a function of position along the beam. b) Calculate the maximum deflection of the beam and state its location. c) Calculate the location at which the bending moment is a maximum (is this the same as for (b)?) Problem M6 This question is a first step towards designing a beam-like structure – e.g. a wing. You are asked to specify a material for a cantilever beam (i.e. a beam clamped at one end) which is to be of a specified length, L, and to be of the lowest possible mass to support a load, P, applied at its tip while minimizing the tip deflection, d , without failing. a) Assuming that the beam is constrained to have a solid square cross-section, side, h, express the mass of the beam, m, in terms of, L, the relevant material properties and the stiffness of the beam (P/ d). ( Note: The key to achieving this is to eliminate the cross-sectional dimension, h, from the expression). What is the figure of merit (combination of material properties) that must be minimized in order to achieve the lightest weight beam for a given desired stiffness? b) If instead of a requirement on minimizing deflection the beam is required to support the same load, P, without exceeding the failure strength, sf? What should the figure of merit for selecting a material now be in order to create a beam of minimum 2 mass?. Assume that failure will occur when the maximum bending stress equals the strength of the material. c) For the materials listed in the table below, identify the material(s) that you would choose to meet the criteria of part (a) and part (b). What other factors should be considered in selecting a material for this application?. d) Square solid sections are structurally not very efficient – “I” beams or hollow “box” beams are much more efficient – why is this? What other factors would need to be considered in selecting a material if a “box” cross-section was to be considered in (c)?. Material Density, r, (Mg/m3) Modulus, E, CTE, a, Price , p, Tensile Strength, (GPa) x 10 -6 K-1 ($/Mg) sf , (MPa) Stainless Steel 17-7 PH 7.9 193 12 1500 1435 Aluminum alloy (2000 series) 2.8 71 24 1500 350 Titanium alloy Ti-6Al4V 4.5 120 9.0 8000 850 Carbon fiber composite* 1.5 70 3.0 100000 700 Wood (e.g spruce)* 0.6 12 4.0 300 300 Silicon Carbide (SiC) 3.0 410 4.0 50000 300 * These materials are anisotropic. You can assume that the values given are available in the requisite directions for this problem. 3 ...
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