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Block 2 Stress and Strain
M10 Stress
We want to look more closely at how structures transmit loads. In general, structures are
not made up of discrete, 1D bars, but continuous, complex, 3D shapes. If we want to
understand how they transmit load we needs more tools. To this end we will introduce
the concept of stress (and later strain). We will also apply three great principles in terms
of stress and strain.
Definition Stress is the measure of the intensity (per area) of force acting at a point.
Use new coordinate system
Example: † On a 2nd square DF1 = F1 nm
DA = A nm † x, y, z Æ x1, x2 , x 3 Page 2
The stress is the intensity, force per unit aresa, so let m and n go to infinity. È force ˘
units Í
˙
2
Î length ˚ lim DF1
s1 = n Æ •
DA
mÆ• where s 1 is the stress at a point on the x1  face
 † Magnitude s 1  † Direction i1 † † † Consider a more general case: † Force F acting on x1 face ( i1 is normal to plane of face)
Resolve force into 3 components F = F1 i1 + F2 i 2 + F3 i 3 † Page 3
Then take the limit as the force on the face is carried by a smaller set of areas (bigger
grid).
lim DF
=0
(but stress vector has other components)
DA
s = s 11 i1 + s 12 i 2 + s 13 i 3
DA Æ 0 † DF1
DA1 † DF2
DA1 DF3
DA1 Where s 1 is the stress vector and s1n are the components acting on the x1 normal face, † in the x1, x2 and x3 directions. † † Get similar results if we looked at the x2 and x3 faces. s 2 = s 21 i 2 + s 22 i 2 + s 23 i 3 on i2 face
s 3 = s 31 i1 + s 32 i 2 + s 32 i 3 on i3 face
can write more succinctly as † s m = s mn i n
s mn is the stress tensor, s m is the stress vector. † This method of representing a set of vector equations is an example of indicial, or tensor, † notation: †
Tensor (Indicial) Notation "easy" to write complicated formulae
"easy" to mathematically manipulate
"elegant" rigorous
Example: xi = Fij Y j
Subscripts or indices † By Convention
Latin subscripts m, n, i, j, p, q, etc. † Page 4
Take values 1, 2, 3, (3D)
Greek Subscripts g , b, a
Take values 1 or 2 (2D) 3 Rules for Tensor Manipulation
1. †
A subscript occurring twice is a repeated (or dummy) index and is summed over 1, 2, (and) 3. • Implicit summation
3 For xi = Fij Y j = Â Fij Y j
j =1 i.e: xi = Fi1Y1 + Fi2Y2 + Fi 3Y 3
2. A subscript occurring once in a term is called a free index, can take on the range 1, 2, † (3) but is not summed. It represents separate equations. †
x1 = F11Y1 + F12Y2 + F13Y 3 (cf matrix multiplication) x2 = F21Y1 + F22Y2 + F23Y 3
x 3 = F31Y1 + F32Y2 + F33Y 3
3. † No index can appear in a term more than twice. Two Useful Tensor Parameters
1. Kronecker delta Ï 1  when m=n
dmn = Ì0  when m ≠ n
Ô
Ó
Why is this useful?
Consider scalar product of unit vectors † im . im = 1 parallel
im . in = 0 perpendicular
†
† † dmn = i m . i n
So Scalar product of two vectors becomes: Page 5 F . G = (Fm i m ) . Gn i n
= Fm Gn (i m . i n )
= Fm Gn dmn
2. † Permutation tensor emnp . ("permute"  to change the order of)
Swapped 2 pairs
Ï 0 When any two indices are equal
1, 2, 3
Ô
emnp = Ì 1 When mnp is even permutation of 1, 2, 3
3, 1, 2
Ô1 When mnp is an odd permutation of 1, 2, 3
2, 3, 1
Ó† Swapped 1 pair
1, 3, 2
2, 1, 3
3, 2, 1
(So where does this come from?)
Consider cross product of unit vectors. i1 ¥ i1 = 0 i1 ¥ i1 = i 3 i 2 ¥ i1 = i 3 i 2 ¥ i 2 = 0 i 2 ¥ i 3 = i1 i 3 ¥ i 2 = i1
i 3 ¥ i 3 = 0 i 3 ¥ i1 = i 2 i1 ¥ i 3 = i 2
So i1 ¥ i 2 = e121 i1 + e122 i 2 + i123i3 = i 3
In general, † Page 6
Now back to stress. We have learnt that stress is a tensor quantity, i.e. it can be
represented by tensor (indicial) notation
Stress Tensor and Stress Types s mn is the stress tensor
Consider a differential element: † s mn
Stress acts on
†
face with
normal in the
xmdirection Acts in xn direction Page 7
Types of Stress
Can identify two distinct types of stress:
Normal (Extensional)  acts normal to face s11, s 22 , s 33  acts to extend element
Shear Stress  acts parallel to face plane s12 , s 13, s 21, s 23, s 31, s 32 acts to shear element
i.e. 9 components of stress, but it turns out that not all of these are independent:
Symmetry of Stress Tensor
Consider moment equilibrium of differential element: Take moments about C + Ê1
ˆ
Ê1
ˆ
2s 23dx 3 dx1 Á dx 2 ˜  2s 32dx 2 dx 1 Á dx 3 ˜ = 0
Ë2
¯
Ë2
¯
simplifies to: s 23 = s 32 † Therefore only 6 independent components of the stress tensor: three extensional stresses:
s11, s22 , s33 and three shear stresses: s12, s23 , s31 † ...
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 Fall '05
 MarkDrela
 Force, Stress, stress tensor

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