Lecture 1

Lecture 1 - 8/30/2011 CNIT 17600 IT Architectures Course...

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8/30/2011 1 CNIT 17600 IT Architectures INTRODUCTION TO IT ARCHITECTURES & COMPUTING SYSTEMS
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8/30/2011 2 Appreciate the history of computing and its influences to IT today Lecture Objectives Comprehend the many units of measure needed to intelligently AND objectively discuss IT systems Begin identifying the complexities of computing Begin building the knowledge necessary to design, build, manage, maintain, secure, and operate business IT systems Reading Assignment Chapter 1 Computer Organization & Architecture
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8/30/2011 3 Technology and Knowledge 5 Better Question (?): Why study computer organization and architecture? Computers and computing devices Increasingly powerful and increasingly complex Yet, easier to use Acquiring and configuring these devices requires more knowledge than simply being an effective user of devices Design better programs, applications, software, or systems Optimize IT systems Why is technical knowledge important? 1.1 Overview 6 Computer organization Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? Computer architecture Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer? Computer organization vs. architecture
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8/30/2011 4 1.2 Computer Components 7 There is no clear distinction between matters related to computer organization and matters relevant to computer architecture. Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Any task done by software can also be done using hardware, and any operation performed directly by hardware can be done using software.* 1.2 Computer Components 8 At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor that interprets and executes programs Memory to store data AND programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world Organization vs. Architecture?
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8/30/2011 5 1.3 An Example System 9 Consider this advertisement: What does it all mean?? 1.3 An Example System 10 Measures of capacity and speed: Kilo (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 Mega (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 Giga (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 Tera (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 Peta (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 Exa (E) = 1 quintillion = 10 18 and 2 60 Zetta (Z) = 1 sextillion = 10 21 and 2 70 Yotta (Y) = 1 septillion = 10 24 and 2 80 Systems of Measure for Computing
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8/30/2011 6 1.3 An Example System 11 Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1 MHz = 1,000,000Hz Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. Byte = a unit of storage
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Lecture 1 - 8/30/2011 CNIT 17600 IT Architectures Course...

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