Base Substitutions - errors during DNA replication or...

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DNA & Cell Division Base Substitutions * Depending on how a base substitution is translated, it can result in * no change in the protein * in a insignificant change * in a change that might be crucial to life (sickle cell anemia) * occasional improvement that enhance the survival of the organism * Some substitutions have no effect due to redundancy of the genetic code Mutation (continued) * Alterations within gene * base deletions and insertions - are often disastrous due to the alteration of the reading frame * all nucleotides down stream from the mutation will be regrouped into different codons Base Insertions or Deletions Mutagenesis * The process of creating a mutation * Spontaneous mutations- mutations resulting from
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Unformatted text preview: errors during DNA replication or recombination and mutations of unknown cause * Mutagens- the source of a mutation * can be physical, chemical agents, or biological Mutagenesis * Certain mutagens that are cancer causing are called Carcinogens * physical agents * high energy radiation is the most common physical agent * ultraviolet radiation Mutagenesis * Chemical agents * tobacco- known to cause more cases and types of cancer than any other single agent * cancer of the lung, bladder, kidne, mouth and throat, pancreas,stomach, and cervix * alcohol * cancer of the mouth and throat, and liver * Biological agents * viruses * cancer of the cervix, liver, and blood...
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