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Ear has three regions - Ears and Hearing Waves are...

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Anatomy of the Ear * Ear has three regions * outer * middle * inner * outer and middle are concerned with the transmission of sound to the inner ear * inner ear converts sound to fluid motion and then to electrical impulses (action potentials) The Physiology of the Ear Outer Ear * Auricle (pinna)- flap of elastic cartilage * External auditory canal * Tympanic membrane (eardrum)- semitransparent thin fibroelastic connective tissue membrane, covered by epidermis on the external side and a simple low cuboidal mucous epithielium on the inner side External Auditory Canal Middle Ear * Ossicle s (malleus, incus, stapes) * Oval window * Round window * Opening into the Eustachian tube Inner Ear * Vestibular apparatus for balance and equilibrium * Cochlea for hearing Sound * Results from the motion of air molecules which oscillate. * Compression and rarefaction with ea. pressure pulse --> pressure waves. * Sound waves travel in all directions from their source.
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Unformatted text preview: Ears and Hearing * Waves are characterized by frequency and intensity. * Frequency: * Measured in hertz (cycles per second). * Greater the frequency the higher the pitch. * Intensity: * Directly related to amplitude of sound waves. * Measured in decibels. Outer Ear * The shape of the outer ear (auricle) increases the intensity of the intermediate frequencies: those that are most important for preception of speech sounds * Sound waves are funneled by the auricle into the external auditory meatus. * External auditory meatus channels sound waves to the tympanic membrane. * Increases sound wave intensity. Anatomy of the Ear Middle Ear Bones * The ossicles (the smallest bones in the bondy) amplify the sound 20 X due to leverage * advantage: sensitivity to soft sounds *-disadvantage; possible damage to sensory cells from loud sounds...
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