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IX - Physiology of Respiration IX Neural Substrates of...

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Physiology of Respiration IX. Neural Substrates of Breathing A. Medulla Respiratory Centers Inspiratory Center (Dorsal Resp Group - rhythmic breathing) ----> phrenic nerve ----> intercostal nerves ----> diaphragm + external intercostals Expiratory Center (Ventral Resp Group - forced expiration) ----> phrenic nerve ----> intercostal nerves ----> internal intercostals + abdominals (expiration) 1. eupnea - normal resting breath rate (12/minute) 2. drug overdose - causes suppression of Inspiratory Center B. Pons Respiratory Centers 1. pneumotaxic center - slightly inhibits medulla, causes shorter, shallower, quicker breaths 2. apneustic center - stimulates the medulla, causes longer, deeper, slower breaths C. Control of Breathing Rate & Depth 1. breathing rate - stimulation/inhibition of medulla 2. breathing depth - activation of inspiration muscles 3. Hering-Breuer Reflex - stretch of visceral pleura that lungs have expanded (vagal nerve) D. Hypothalamic Control - emotion + pain to the medulla E.
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