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Lipids - reaction without being changed into a different...

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Lipids * Composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen * Does not have 1:2 oxygen to hydrogen ratio * noncharged * hydrophobic * hydrophillic * Classes of lipids * triglycerides (fats and oils)- the bodies most highly concentrated source of energy over carbohydrates, however, less efficient. Saturated Fatty Acids Animal foods (meats, milk, eggs) Unsaturated Fatty Acid Lipids (cont) * steriods (carbon skeleton bent to form 4 fused rings)- * cholesterol, vitamin D, E, and K, sex hormones * carotenes- chemicals used to make vitamin A * eiscosanoids * prostaglandins- contribute to inflammation, regulate body temperature, help form blood clot * leukotrienes- participate in allergic and inflammatory reactions Proteins * a biological polymer composed of amino acid monomers * major classes of proteins * structural- hair, silk of spiders, fibers that of tendons * contractile- provide muscular movement * defensive- antibodies which fight infection * transport- hemoglobin which carries oxygen * hormones * enzymes- serves as a chemical catalyst (an agent that changes the rate of a chemical
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Unformatted text preview: reaction without being changed into a different molecule in the process. * Promote and regulate all the chemical reactions in the body A Protein’s Specific Shape Determines its Function * a protein consist of one or more protein chains folded into a unique shape * a proteins specificity is dependent on its shape * most proteins are globular, although structural proteins are long and thin (fibrous) Denaturation * the process that alters the three dimensional structure * heat * salt * pH Temperature and Enzyme Activity Enzymes * Catalyst- Substances that speed up chemical reactions by increasing the frequency of collisions and properly orienting the molecules, without themselves being altered. * Characteristics * Specificity * each enzyme has a special substrate * active site * Efficiency-the number of reactions that can occur per minute (turnover number) * Control- the rate of synthesis can be altered by cellular mechanisms....
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