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Nucleic Acids - Non-histons protein-provide structural...

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DNA & Cell Division Nucleic Acids * Polymers of monomers called nucleotides * serves as blueprint for protein synthesis * two types of nucleic acids * DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) * contains all the inheritable genetic information (genes) * RNA (ribonucleic acid)- involved in protein synthesis * mRNA * rRNA * tRNA Nucleotide * Each nucleotide has three parts * sugar- ribose (5C sugar) or deoxyribose * phosphate group- constant * nitrogenous base- variable Complimentary Base Pairing Organization of Genetic Material * DNA in the cell is thick and very long when compared to the size of the nucleus * Perspective: if a DNA molecule was the thickness of a telephone pole, it would reach 2700 miles into space * The cell has 46 DNA molecules that must fit into the nucleus organized and intact. Organization of Genetic Material * Chromatin - longs strands of DNA in beaded like strands * Nucleosome - DNA wrapped around a cluster of proteins called histones
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Unformatted text preview: * Non-histons protein-provide structural support for the chromatin and help regulate gene activity Nucleosome DNA Replication In Cell Division The reasons for cell division * growth * repair * reproduction Two kinds of cell division * somatic cell division- mitosis * sex cell division- meiosis DNA Replication Replication begins at a Specific Sight on the Double Helix Mutations * Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA DNA & Cell Division * Three major types of mutations * alterations within a gene * abnormal numbers of chromosomes * too many or too few of a certain chromosome * abnormal chromosome structure * breakage leading to rearrangements Mutation (continued) * Alterations within a gene * base substitutions- the substitution of one nucleotide for another...
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