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11-Fats+_+Oils+s11

11-Fats+_+Oils+s11 - FST 10 Roles of fats lecture topics...

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FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST 10 Animal & Plant Fats & Oils FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of fats — lecture topics ! Energy source ! Texture ! Adipose ! Essential fatty acids ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Flavor and flavorings ! Heat transfer ! Fatty acid isomers (trans fats) We ! ll now look at each of these individually FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FATS & OILS ! Roles of Fats ! Energy source FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Caloric Values ! Physicists ! definition: ! 1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1°C ! 1 kcal raises 1000 grams of water 1°C ! (actually, modern physicists use Joules instead of calories, but most nutritionists still use nomenclature related to calories). FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Carbohydrates 4 kcals/gram Proteins 4 kcals/gram Fats 9 kcals/gram Caloric Values FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Caloric Values ! Physicists ! definition: ! 1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1°C ! 1 kcal raises 1000 grams of water 1°C ! Nutritionists use the term Calorie to imply kcal or Big Calorie ± Multiply Calories by 4.1868 to get kJoules.
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FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Recommendations for Fat Intake ! Recommendations of the USDA“Dietary Guidelines for Americans” ref: fats (Jan 2005) ! Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and keep trans fats low ! Eat less than 35% of total calories from fats and oils (keep it between 20-35% of total calories) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Is there Controversy? FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Is there Controversy? FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Is there Controversy? Revisions are (always) in the works Last year, Lt. Gov. Stephen L. Henry championed a bill that put minimum nutritional standards on foods sold in school vending machines Fighting ‘Big Fat’ An army is mobilizing in a war against junk food. The combatants: doctors, lawyers, preachers and moms Peg Tyne NEWSWEEK Saturday, July 27, 2002 IN BRIEF/RESTAURANTS Man Sues Fast-Food Chains for His Obesity By Associated Press A man sued four leading fast-food chains, claiming he became obese and suffered from other serious health problems from eating their fatty cuisine. Is there a 'fat tax' in your future? Could be, experts say; obesity to blame, but food industry scoffs Tuesday, April 30, 2002 By LANCE GAY SCRIPPS HOWARD NEWS SERVICE WASHINGTON -- It's official: We're fat. Metabolic Syndrome Types of Biopolymers in Foods Polymer Subunit Examples Carbohydrates monosaccharides sucrose, starch Trigycerides fatty acids cooking oils Proteins amino acids collagen, gelatin
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FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Trigycerides - (Fats & Oils) ! 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Fatty Acids & Soaps (McGee) ! To take off the fatty acids, one method is ! Saponification: treatment of fats with a strong base (lye) to give salts of fatty acids (soap) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Triglyceride hydrolysis ! For digestion, we also need to hydrolyze the fatty acids off the glycerol ! There ! s that word hydrolysis again… ! But we can ! t use lye, so we use enzymes called lipases !
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