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13-Foodborne+Intoxications+_+Infections

13-Foodborne+Intoxications+_+Infections - (Microbial Food...

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1 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 G. M. Smith G. M. Smith (Microbial) Food Safety FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 If Food Isn’t Safe… It doesn’t matter How much there is, How much it costs, How good it tastes, How long it lasts… It is toxic How can food be unsafe? FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Increasing concern by regulatory agencies such as the FDA & CDC Food Hazards Microbiological Nutritional Environmental Natural Toxicants Pesticide Residues Food Additives FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Food-borne Illnesses “Chemical” contaminants - (Already done) Natural Toxins - e.g. solanine in potatoes but if it’s “natural”, how can it be bad for you? Fungi - e.g. mushrooms, aflatoxins Bacteria - overview in this lecture Viruses - mentioned briefly in FST10 Parasites - mentioned even more briefly in FST10 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Estimated Food-borne Illness Per year in U.S. 76 million cases (27,839 cases per 100,000) 375,000 hospitalizations 5,000 deaths fr’heaven’s sake, don’t write these down Source: (Mead et al., 1999) Food-Borne Pathogens See “The Bad Bug Book” Started in 1992 by the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/intro.html
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2 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Microorganisms How do they become hazards in food? FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Microorganisms Microorganisms yeasts MULTIPLY in food molds bacteria MULTIPLY in food and/or humans (infection) human viruses MULTIPLY in humans not food parasites Complex life cycle bacterial viruses MULTIPLY in bacteria FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 MICROBIAL FOOD POISONINGS Generally two major types of Food-Borne illness: (1) Intoxications (2) Infections FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 (1) FOOD-BORNE INTOXICATIONS Food-borne intoxication (food poisoning) refers to relatively acute illness associated with the consumption of pre-formed microbial toxins in food. The organism must grow in the food, but need not grow in you . FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Microbial Growth/Survival Growth: Increase in numbers Survival: No increase or decrease in numbers Death: Decrease in numbers FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Growth of Bacterial Cells Called “growth” or “multiplication” Under the best conditions, a cell can divide every 20 to 30 minutes On the next slide we can see what could happen if cells divide every 30 minutes…
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3 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Multiplying Bacteria: 30 minute doubling time • 9 a.m. • 10 a.m. • 11 a.m. • 12 p.m. • 1 p.m. • 2 p.m. • 3 p.m. • 4 p.m. • 5 p.m. • 6 p.m. 1 cell 4 cells 256 cells 1024 cells 16 cells 4096 cells 64 cells 16,384 cells 65,536 cells 262,144 cells 1,048,576 cells • 8 a.m. FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 3 Food-borne Intoxications Staphylococcus aureus classic barf Clostridium botulinum deadly Bacillus cereus An emerging pathogen (There are others) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Staphylococcal intoxication An intoxication from the ingestion of a pre-formed enterotoxin from Staphylococcus spp.
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