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PSC 1 3.measurement

PSC 1 3.measurement - Measuring Behavior VALIDITY ISSUES...

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1 VALIDITY ISSUES AND MEASUREMENT SCALES Measuring Behavior Lecture Outline ° Measuring Variables ° Scales of Measurement ° Research example 2 Measuring variables ° Some things can be directly measured ° Behavioral ° Physiological ° Self-Report ° Some things can not be directly measured ° Create a measure that assess and approximates the variable of interest (the construct)
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2 Measuring variables ° Almost all measurements include some degree of error or noise ° We must evaluate the accuracy and consistency of the measurement Validity and Reliability ° Validity (accuracy) ° Webster: “soundly based on facts or evidence” ° Reliability (consistency) ° If the characteristic being measured is stable, a reliable test yields consistent results A construct ° A construct is a hypothetical variable which is not directly observable ° ‘Intelligence’ ° ‘Happiness’ ° Estimate the participant’s level of the construct by asking multiple questions ° Operational definition becomes very Important
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3 Anxiety OBSERVABLE EVENTS HYPOTHESIZED CONSTRUCT No opportunity for escape Unfamiliar situation/change Threat of aversive event Physiological measures: Sweating Increased heart rate Increased blood pressure Rapid, shallow breathing Behavioral measures: Inhibited behavior (unable to perform simple tasks) Pacing, rapid eye movements, startle-reflex Stammering, other speech problems Other indicators: Responses to “anxiety assessment” Expressed need
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