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doi: 10.1098/rsif.2005.0097 , 441-451 3 2006 J. R. Soc. Interface N.W Rizzo, K.H Gardner, D.J Walls, N.M Keiper-Hrynko, T.S Ganzke and D.L Hallahan adhesive setae Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko Supplementary data http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2009/02/11/3.8.441.DC1.html "Data Supplement" References http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/8/441.full.html#related-urls Article cited in: http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/8/441.full.html#ref-list-1 This article cites 32 articles, 3 of which can be accessed free Rapid response http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/letters/submit/royinterface;3/8/441 Respond to this article Email alerting service here right-hand corner of the article or click Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions go to: J. R. Soc. Interface To subscribe to This journal is © 2006 The Royal Society on November 10, 2010 rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org Downloaded from
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Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae N. W. Rizzo, K. H. Gardner , D. J. Walls, N. M. Keiper-Hrynko, T. S. Ganzke and D. L. Hallahan* Central Research and Development, E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Experimental Station, PO Box 80328, Wilmington, DE 19880-0328, USA The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of b -keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as a -keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight b -keratins (14–20 kDa), together with a -keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses. Keywords: seta; adhesive; gecko; protein; keratin; b -keratin 1. INTRODUCTION The adhesive setae of reptiles and insects have long fascinated biologists ( Dellit 1934 ; Maderson 1964 ; Ruibal & Ernst 1965 ; Hiller & Blaschke 1967 ; Hiller 1968 ; Stork 1983 ), and interest in these structures has increased following recent demonstration of the adhesive properties of single, detached setae ( Autumn et al . 2000 ). This work has led to speculation that synthetic mimics of these structures may be generated, yielding a new class of dry, reversible adhesive ( Sitti & Fearing 2003 ). An understanding of the mechanism ( Autumn et al . 2000 , 2002
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