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Unformatted text preview: CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues Shirley A. Kan Spet in Asian Security Affairs May 26, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL31555 China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service Summary Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of Chinas technology reportedly include Pakistan and countries said by the State Department to have supported terrorism, such as Iran. This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the security problem of Chinas role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response since the mid- 1990s. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. and other foreign concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Nonetheless, supplies from China have aggravated trends that result in ambiguous technical aid, more indigenous capabilities, longer-range missiles, and secondary (retransferred) proliferation. According to unclassified intelligence reports submitted as required to Congress, China has been a key supplier of technology, particularly PRC entities providing nuclear and missile-related technology to Pakistan and missile-related technology to Iran. Policy approaches in seeking PRC cooperation have concerned summits, sanctions, and satellite exports. On November 21, 2000, the Clinton Administration agreed to waive missile proliferation sanctions, resume processing licenses to export satellites to China, and discuss an extension of the bilateral space launch agreement, in return for another PRC promise on missile nonproliferation. However, PRC proliferation activities have continued to raise questions about Chinas commitment to nonproliferation and the need for U.S. sanctions. The Bush Administration imposed sanctions on 20 occasions on various PRC entities (including state-owned entities) for troublesome transfers related to missiles and chemical weapons to Pakistan, Iran, or perhaps another country, including repeated sanctions on some serial proliferators. Among those sanctions, in September 2001, the Administration imposed missile proliferation sanctions that effectively denied satellite exports, after a PRC company transferred technology to Pakistan, despite the promise of 2000. In September 2003, the State Department imposed additional sanctions on NORINCO, a defense industrial entity, effectively denying satellite exports to China....
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course AMGOV 100 taught by Professor Mary during the Spring '11 term at St. Mary NE.
- Spring '11