At the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. Keith Campbell, director of embryology at PPL
therapeutics in Roslin, and his colleague Dr. Ian Wilmut worked together on a project to clone a sheep,
Dolly, from adult cells. On February 22, 1997, they finally succeeded. Dolly was the only lamb born from
277 fusions of oocytes with udder cells. Wilmut says there were so many failures because it is difficult to
ensure that the empty oocytes and the donor cell are at the same stage of the
Dolly, basically scientists took an unfertilized egg cell, removed the nucleus, replaced it with cells taken
from the organism to be cloned, put it into an empty egg cell which begins to develop as an embryo, and
implanted this embryo into a mother, from which the clone was born.The fact that only 1 out of 277
attempts succeeded is a little scary when applied to human beings.
If an attempt to clone a human led to that high of a death toll, then there would not be many supporters.
According to Rifkin, in an extensive survey of all 106 clinical trials of experimental gene therapies
conducted over the past five years involving more than 597 patients, a panel of experts convened by the
NIG reported that "Clinical efficacy has not been definitively demonstrated at this time in any gene therapy
protocol, despite anecdotal claims of successful therapy." (545). These results are also happening with
people who are trying to get gene therapy. With these facts on the table, it would not be ideal to try to
clone humans if cloning an animal took several hundred attempts and
human gene therapy
hundreds of failures as well.Humans are going way beyond their limits in the field of biotechnology in the
Until recently, these ideas were unheard of. Now with new technology, scientists are capable of changing
an organism's genetic make-up. We are very eager to learn new things, however, this eagerness gets in
the way of common sense all too often. As stated in Starr and Taggart's article, "we do not have the
wisdom to bring about beneficial changes without causing great harm to ourselves or to the environment."