biochem 1 - Lecture 1 Learning Goals understand types and...

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Lecture 1 Learning Goals: understand types and properties of weak interactions and importance understand major features of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and function of each organelle Characteristics of Living Systems: 1. complicated, highly organized 2. structures have functional purpose 3. energy transformations 4. self-replication Food Pyramid: primary producers (photosynthesis)-->primary consumers (herbivores)-- >secondary consumers (carnivores) -DNA is not energy carrying molecule like ATP or NADPH -H,O,C,C are lightest elements capable of forming strong covalent bonds -inorganic precursors-->metabolites-->building blocks-->macromolecules Macromolecules: -formed by dehydration syntheses reactions; water is eliminated between monomeric units -ex: proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides -in case of polypeptide, water is eliminated from carboxyl group of one amino acid and amino group of next Weak Interactions: 1.Van der Waals--> weakest, intrinsic attractions between components 0.4-4.0 kJ/mol (+ nucleus and neighbors electrons) ex. antigen-antibody, , interaction decreases at a close distance, a negative energy change is increase in stability 2.Hydrogen Bonds--> 12-30kJ/mol weak polar interaction b/w hydrogen attached to element with unshared electron pair and another atom with unshared electron pair acceptor has one or more pairs of unshared electrons donor has hydrogen attached to an element with one or more unshared electron pairs 3.Ionic Bonds 20 kJ/mol + charged component attracted to - charged component -Hydrophobic Interactions-->can assemble in interior of protein, exclude water from area 1. Hydrophobic Interactions (most important)
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<40 kJ/mol attraction b/w two hydrocarbon chains in aqueous environments strongest of weak interactions, most important in maintenance of protein 3-D structure Denaturing Agents UV light Mechanical sheer forces- irreversible Heat 8 M Urea- reversible Eukaryotic/Prokaryotic Structure Functions Animal Cell Nucleolus:where rRNA is transcribed and assembled Nucleus: control center of cell, contains cell’s DNA Plasma Membrane:selectively permeable separates interior from outside Golgi Body: processes and packages macromolecules like proteins and lipids to their next destination Microtubules: serve as structural components Cytoplasm: what is enclosed inside cell membrane Mitochondrion: generates most of cell’s supply of ATP used as source of chemical energy Lysosome: break up waste materials and cellular debris Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: production and processing of specific proteins Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: connected to nuclear envelope, synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, also lipid metabolism Ribosomes: production of proteins Plant Cell vacuole: contains waste products, maintains acidic internal pH chloroplast: capture light energy to conserve free energy in form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADH through photosynthesis
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