5_Database - BasicDataManagementConcepts Database Database...

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1 Basic Data Management Concepts Database A collection of data organized to meet users’ needs Database management system (DBMS) Software used to access database Database system Comprised of database, DBMS, and application programs
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2 The Hierarchy of Data Bits Bytes Field Name, number, or combination of characters that describes some aspect of an object Record Collection of related fields File or Table Collection of related records Database Collection of integrated and related files
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4 Examples of logical data elements
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5 Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys Entity Generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained Attribute Characteristic of an entity For example, employee number or last name Key Field in a record used to identify the record Primary key Uniquely identifies the record
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7 Traditional File Processing Data stored in independent files Problems: Data redundancy Lack of data integration Data dependence – files, storage devices, and software are dependent on each other Lack of data integrity or standardization
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8 Traditional File Processing
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9 Database Management Approach Consolidate data into databases that can be accessed by different programs Use a database management system (DBMS) DBMS serves as interface between users and databases
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10 Database Management Approach
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11 DBMS Major Functions
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12 Database Interrogation End users use a DBMS by asking for information via a query or a report generator Query language – immediate responses to ad hoc data requests SQL (Structured Query Language) an international standard query language Graphical Queries -- Point-and-click methods Natural Queries – similar to conversational English Report generator – quickly specify a report format for information you want printed in a report
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13 Natural Language versus SQL
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14 Graphical Query QBE – Query by Example Source: Courtesy of Microsoft Corp.
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15 Database Maintenance Updating database to reflect new business transactions such as a new sale Done by transaction processing systems with support of DBMS
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16 Application Development Use DBMS software development tools to develop custom application programs Data Manipulation Language (DML)
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17 The Database Approach to Data  Management Database approach Multiple application programs share a pool of related data Increased flexibility in the use of data Requires a database management system (DBMS)
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19 Organizing Data in a Database Questions to be asked when building a database What data is to be collected and at what cost What data is to be provided to which users when appropriate How is the data to be arranged so that it makes sense Where is the data to be physically located Who is responsible for maintaining an accurate database system
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course ECONOMICS 2301 taught by Professor Ginn during the Spring '11 term at Texas A&M.

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5_Database - BasicDataManagementConcepts Database Database...

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