ESCI1012_03 - 1 Energy Sources of Disasters • Earth’s internal energy sources • Earth’s external energy sources • Some big numbers •

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Unformatted text preview: 1/16/2012 1 Energy Sources of Disasters • Earth’s internal energy sources • Earth’s external energy sources • Some big numbers • Origin of Earth and its layering This Day In Earthquake History Bicentennial of the 1811 ‐ 1812 New Madrid Earthquake Sequence Dec 16, 1811, Jan 23, 1812, Feb 7, 1812 All had magnitudes > 7.0 Clearing debris from the Mississippi. Kozak Collection New Madrid Seismic Zone Estimated Intensity Map 1/16/2012 2 All natural Processes that occur on or within the Earth require Energy All natural Processes that occur on or within the Earth require Energy • All geologic natural hazards involve the movement of matter in a way that we are not prepared to accept • What are the sources of energy that drive geologic processes creating hazards? 1/16/2012 3 The physical geology of the Earth is modified through time by processes driven by two sources of ENERGY What Drives Geological Processes? Formation of Solar System and the Earth 2. Internal Energy of the Earth 1. External Energy from the Sun Sources of energy fuel Earth processes • Impact of extraterrestrial bodies abundant in early Earth history, rare now • Gravity Mass of Earth pulls objects (glaciers, hillsides, erosion) downhill • Earth’s internal heat As Earth cools, heat flows from interior to surface Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, Plate tectonics; formation of continents, atmosphere and oceans • The Sun Evaporation of water into atmosphere produces weather lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes 1/16/2012 4 Energy and power • Energy ( Capacity to do work) – Joules – BTUs: 1 BTU = 1055 J – Quad = 10 15 BTU = 1.055x10 18 J Kil t h 1 KWH 3 600 000 – Kilowatt ‐ hour: 1 KWH = 3,600,000 J – 1 gallon [U.S.] of automotive gasoline = 131.8 MJ For most natural disasters, the natural unit is the kiloton (kt) of TNT (4.2 x10 12 J); the Hiroshima atom bomb had a yield of 15 kt. • Power: energy per time (energy rate) 1 J l / 1 W t – 1 Joule/sec = 1 Watt – 1 HP = 746 Watt 1 BTU = amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree from 60 to 61°F Energy System of US Total U.S. energy consumption (2001): 97 quads (= 25 billion tons TNT) Power consumption, per capita: 13.6 kW ‐ hour 86% from fossil fuels Total U.S. energy consumption (2001): 97 quads (= 25 billion tons TNT) Power consumption, per capita: 13.6 kW ‐ hour 86% from fossil fuels Jordan and Grotzinger, 2008 World Annual Consumption (2008): 474 quads 1/16/2012...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2012 for the course ESCI 1012 taught by Professor Joshfeinbergbrucemoskowitz during the Spring '11 term at Minnesota.

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ESCI1012_03 - 1 Energy Sources of Disasters • Earth’s internal energy sources • Earth’s external energy sources • Some big numbers •

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