4 Microbial Growth 1-26-11 - Three Domains of Life Three...

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Three Domains of Life Three Domains of Life Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya Prokaryotes Figure 1.5 Figure 1.27
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Archaea are not Bacteria Similar size, shape, no nuclear membrane, circular dsDNA nucleoid (both are prokaryotes ) Very different biochemically Different membrane lipids Different cell wall composition Different transcription and translation machinery (Archaea machinery more similar to eukaryotes) Many archaea live in harsh environments No archaea known to cause disease
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Archaea are not Bacteria Archaeal membranes Membrane lipids are ether-linked, branched and cross-linked that makes the membrane more stable Figure 3.15 Ester-linked lipids in bacteria and eukaryotes Archaea have ether- linked lipids
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A lipid bilayer Double layer of phospholipids Cytoplasmic Membrane Cytoplasmic Membrane Figure 3.8 Figure 3.7
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Archaea are not Bacteria Archaeal cell walls Many have no cell wall, but only a protein S-layer If they have a cell wall, it lacks peptidoglycan (may have pseudopeptidoglycan – contains a derivative of NAM and L-amino acids only ) Therefore may be resistant to lysozyme and penicillin Figure 19.14 Sulfolobus with S-layer Figure 19.19 Methanobacterium with pseudopeptidoglycan
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The Bacterial Cell Wall The Bacterial Cell Wall Figure 3.18 Lysozyme
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Archaea are not Bacteria Archaeal genetics Transcription (e.g., RNA polymerase, transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes, translation factors, tRNA) machinery are more similar to eukaryotes than to bacteria Therefore may be resistant to rifampin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and streptomycin Figure 19.4
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Archaea are not Bacteria Archaeal metabolism Unique metabolic pathways (e.g., methanogenesis and variations in glycolysis) Figure 19.3 Figure 19.25
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Eukarya Includes animals, plants, algae, fungi and protists Eukaryotic cells (10−100 μm) larger size than prokaryotic cells (0.4-10 μm) Have a nucleus (linear chromosomes) and membrane bound organelles (e.g., mitochondria) Figure 2.4 Figure A2.9
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Animals and Plants Multicellular organisms Animal cells do not have cell walls; but plants have rigid cell walls made of cellulose Plants have chloroplasts for photosynthesis
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