Animal Behavior Introduction When Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species in 1859, his theory of natural selection set the stage for scientists to consider animal behavior in an evolutionary light. With this foundation, Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch began to seriously practice ethology, the study of animal behavior. In 1973, Tinbergen, Lorenz, and von Frisch shared the Nobel Prize. Niko Tinbergen developed four questions that have been used ever since to model the study of animal behavior. The first question asks about the mechanisms of a behavior. What stimulates the animal to respond with the behavior it displays, and what are the response mechanisms? The second question concerns the translation of genotype to phenotype. How does an organism develop as the individual matures? As an individual grows from an embryo to an adult, what developmental processes allow the implementation of behaviors? The third question deals with the function of a particular behavior. Why is the behavior necessary for the animal's success and
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