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Population Genetics - Population Genetics Hardy-Weinberg...

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Population Genetics Hardy-Weinberg Equations Let us start with a given trait that has two alleles T and t. To find the frequency of allele T(p) in the population, we would use the following formula: p = (# of copies of T in the population) / (total # of copies of all alleles in the population); or p = (2(# of individuals homozygous for T) + (# of individuals heterozygous for T)) / 2(# of individuals in the population). We can find the frequency of allele t (q) in the same way. Once we have the values of p and q, we can set up an equation based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. If the frequency of each allele is constant, then the following equation, called a Hardy-Weinberg Equation, is always true: ( p + q ) 2 = 1 ; or p 2 +2 pq + q 2 = 1 The second form of the above equation is the most useful, since each of its factors represents a portion of the population. P 2 and q 2 represent those individuals homozygous for T and t, respectively, while 2pq represents all heterozygous individuals. Using these equations, we can determine the frequency of a given phenotype given the frequency of the two alleles.
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