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Unformatted text preview: base pairs long and is found at the growing 3' end of the RNA. The figure also illustrates how the 5' tail end of the RNA chain is separate from, as opposed to base paired to, the DNA template strand. This is another difference between DNA replication and DNA transcription; in replication, the newly synthesized DNA strand remains bound in a helix to the strand with which it has base paired. After the initial stretch of approximately 8 base pairs has been synthesized, the sigma unit, which is responsible for recognition and binding to the promoter region, is released. The core enzyme is left to polymerize the growing RNA chain alone. This leads to the continuous extrusion of the 5' end of the RNA from the enzyme complex. At normal room temperature, the rate of transcription in prokaryotes is 40 nucleotides per second....
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