DNA Translatio7 - Elongation factor - GTP-dependent...

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DNA Translation Carboxyl group - A chemical functional group made up of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and single-bonded to an –OH group. Charging - The two-step process in which an amino acid is "loaded" onto a tRNA. The first step is adenylylation; the second is the binding of tRNA and amino acid into an aminoacyl tRNA. Charged tRNA - Term used to describe a tRNA molecule that has been loaded with an amino acid and is ready to participate in translation. Cloverleaf - The two-dimensional structure of tRNA, resembling a cloverleaf, and caused by self-complementarity. Dihydrouridine - One of the unusual bases found in tRNA. Contains two additional hydrogens in place of the double bond that is usually found in uracil. Dihydrouridine arm - A secondary structural feature of tRNA. Contains a number of dihydrouridines.
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Unformatted text preview: Elongation factor - GTP-dependent proteins that help bring aa-tRNA to the acceptor site of a ribosome during translation. Elongation factors also help in the translocation process. Energy is supplied by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP. Initiation factor - Proteins that help associate pieces of the initiation complex. Peptide bond - A carbon-nitrogen chemical bond formed between amino acid subunits of a polypeptide chain. Peptidyl site - A three nucleotide position in a ribosome in which peptidyl tRNA is found. Peptidyl RNA - The name given to the tRNA located in the P site of the ribosome during translation. This tRNA holds the growing polypeptide chain. Peptidyl transferase - The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the peptide bond formation reaction between amino acids in the P site and A site of a ribosome during translation....
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