Genetic Cod3 - Genetic Code The Genetic Code Codons As we...

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Genetic Code The Genetic Code Codons As we learned in Structure of Nucleic Acids , DNA and RNA are made up by sequences of nitrogen bases-pairs: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Scientists have long understood that these nitrogen bases somehow contained the information that coded for specific amino acids. However, it took some time before they figured out how the base pairs accomplished this coding. Scientists main problem lay in the fact that while there were only 4 nitrogen bases (nucleotides), there were 20 amino acids for which those nucleotides had to code. If adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine each coded for a particular amino acid, then the DNA/mRNA information system would only be able to code for 4 amino acids. If, however, groups of two nucleotides coded for a single amino acid, the story is somewhat different. Given four nucleotides looked at in groups of two, there are sixteen possible combinations (AA, AT, AG, AC, TA, TT, TG, TC, GA, GT, GG, GC, CA, CT, CG, CC); that sixteen is still not enough to code for twenty amino acids. But if the
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course BIOLOGY BSC1005 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Winter '09 term at Broward College.

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Genetic Cod3 - Genetic Code The Genetic Code Codons As we...

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