Structure of Nucleic Acid8

Structure of Nucleic Acid8 - while cytosine and thymine are...

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Structure of Nucleic Acids Major groove - In a helix, refers to the larger of the unequal grooves that are formed as a result of the double-helical structure of DNA. As a result of the patterns of hydrogen bonding between complementary bases of DNA, the sugar groups stick out at 120 degree angles from each other instead of 180. The major groove is generated by the larger angular distance between sugars. Minor groove - In a helix, refers to the smaller of the unequal grooves that are formed as a result of the double-helical structure of DNA. As a result of the patterns of hydrogen bonding between complementary bases of DNA, the sugar groups stick out at 120 degree angles from each other instead of 180. The minor groove is generated by the smaller angular distance between sugars. Nitrogen Base - One of three components of a nucleotide, nitrogen bases come in two general types: purines and pyrimidines. Of the four nitrogen bases, adenine and guanine are purines,
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Unformatted text preview: while cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines. Through hydrogen bonding, base pairs link in a complementary nature: adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine, forming the double-stranded helix of DNA. In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil. Nucleic Acid - A chain of nucleotides joined together by phosphodiester bonds. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. Nucleotide - A five-membered sugar group with a purine or pyrimidine nitrogen base group attached to its 1' carbon via a glycosidic bond and one or more phosphate groups attached to its 5' carbon via an ester bond. Phosphate Backbone - Refers to the structural organization of the DNA double-helix in which the pyrimidine and purine basic groups face the interior while the phosphate groups line the exterior of the helix. The phosphate backbone carries a negative charge....
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course BIOLOGY BSC1005 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Winter '09 term at Broward College.

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