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Structure of Nucleic Acid9 - the 5 carbon of the ribose...

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Structure of Nucleic Acids Terms Anti-parallel - Refers to the orientations of the two single strands that compose a double- stranded DNA helix. Strands are oriented such that one strand's 5' end is directly across from the other strand's 3' end. Complementary - Term used to refer to the natural pairing of the nitrogen bases within DNA and RNA. In DNA, cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine with thymine. In RNA, the thymine is replaced with uracil, which pairs with adenine. Each member of these pairs are said to be a "complements" of the other. Deoxyribose - A five-membered sugar ring that lacks a hydroxyl group at one position, and is the sugar group for DNA. Double-stranded helix - A common structural motif of DNA. Two linear strands of single- stranded DNA fold into a helical shape stabilized internally by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs. Ester bond - In DNA, refers to the oxygen-carbon linkage between the triphosphate group and
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Unformatted text preview: the 5' carbon of the ribose sugar group in a single DNA or RNA nucleotide. Glycosidic Bond - In DNA, refers to the nitrogen-carbon linkage between the 9' nitrogen of purine bases or 1' nitrogen of pyrimidine bases and the 1' carbon of the sugar group. Helical Twist - The angular rotation needed to get from one nucleotide to another in helical structures. Hydrogen Bonding - Weak, noncovalent linkages between a donor and an acceptor which, when lined up next to each other, have favorable electrostatic interactions. Provide small amount of stability to DNA and RNA helices. Provide specificity of the interactions between polynucleotide strands. Hydrogen Bond Acceptor - A group with at least one free lone pair of electrons. In DNA and RNA, common acceptor groups include: carbonyls, hydroxyls, and tertiary amines. Hydrogen Bond Donor - A group with a free hydrogen group. In DNA and RNA, common donors include secondary amines and hydroxyl groups....
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