PGS 315, Lec 4 (Trait Approach)

PGS 315, Lec 4 (Trait Approach) - The Trait Approach...

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The Trait Approach Measuring trait dimensions and observing how scores in those dimensions predict behavior
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The Trait Approach Early Typologies Humorism: (400 BC) Based on the four humors: sanguine (happy), melancholic (unhappy), choleric (temperamental), and phlegmatic( apathetic) Morphology: personality based on body types Ectomorph – underdeveloped (thin/fragile) Endomorph - overweight/jolly (overweight/obese) Mesomorph - muscular or slender (a little more weight) Some of these trait/body association exist as stereotypes today (endomorph = jolly) Phrenology: studying the bumps on your skull Franz Gall – determined that the shape of the skull affected or determined personality
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Modern Trait Dimensions 1) Measured on a continuum 2) Normally distributed (bell curve) 3) Over 4000 personality traits in the dictionary (Allport)
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The Trait Appoach The Big Five Mischel’s criticism
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Gordon Allport Hierarchy of traits Common Traits: Allport was able to find 4000 adjectives to describe personality Central Traits: 5-10 traits that a person would describe themselves with; individual for each person Cardinal Traits: one trait that dominates the personality. Some people are more subject to this than others
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Gordon Allport Idiographic Approach: finding out the central traits for people you want to study and measure those Nomothetic Approach: testing on dimensions of all of the common traits, then analyzing the differences (used in research) What are the most important of the common traits? --- big question that has yet to be answered Functional autonomy: parents have control over you when you’re young. Once you’re out of their control, sometimes you keep behaviors you learned from them (freedom to choose, independent) People usually have differing reasons from their parents
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PGS 315, Lec 4 (Trait Approach) - The Trait Approach...

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