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Ch 1 Introduction to Learning

Ch 1 Introduction to Learning - Introduction to Learning...

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Introduction to Learning Chapter 1 Powell, Symbaluk & Honey
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Chapter Overview Historical Background Aristotle Descartes British Empiricists Structuralism Functionalism Evolution Behaviorism 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson’s Methodological Behaviorism Hull’s Neobehaviorism Tolman’s Cognitive Behvaiorism Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism
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definitions Behavior – any activity of an organism that can be observed or somehow measured Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some kind of experience
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definitions Classical conditioning – certain inborn behaviors come to be produced in new situations ( reflexive or involuntary ) Operant Conditioning – strengthening or weakening of a behavior as a result of its consequences ( voluntary or goal directed ); also an increase or decrease in the probability of the occurrence of a behavior
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definitions Observational Learning – observation of a model’s behavior facilitates the development of similar behavior in an observer Ethology – non-learned, inherited behavior patterns – the effect of inherited dispositions in either facilitating or inhibiting certain types of learning (fixed action patterns)
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Historical Background Aristotle (384-322 BC) - Greece, studied under Plato, a nativist ( nature ) Empiricist ( nurture ) – behavioral tendencies and abilities are mostly learned Three Laws of Association +1 Similarity Contrast Contiguity Frequency
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Historical Background Descartes (1596-1650) – French Philosopher “Cogito Ergo Sum” Dualistic model of human nature also called mind-body dualism Body functions like a machine, produces involuntary, reflexive behaviors in response to external stimulation Mind has “free will” producing behaviors considered voluntary Mechanistic, reflexive behaviors could be studied scientifically
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Historical Background British Empiricists (very short list) – almost all knowledge is a function of experience John Locke (1632-1704) – tabula rasa or “blank slate” The conscious mind is composed of a finite set of basic elements (colors, sounds, smells, etc) combined through principles of association to form complex sensations and thought patterns But they were philosophers not scientists. We like hypothesis testing. Evidence
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Historical Background
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