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Ch 7 Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement

Ch 7 Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement - Chapter 7...

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Chapter 7: Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement
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Topics Schedules of Reinforcement CRF Intermittent (four) Other simple schedules (NOT complex schedules) Theories of Reinforcement Drive Reduction Theory The Premack Principle Response Deprivation Hypothesis Behavioral Bliss Point Approach
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Schedule of Reinforcement Indicates what exactly has to be done for the reinforcer to be delivered. Different response requirements can have dramatically different effects on behavior.
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Continuous Reinforcement Schedule (CRF) Each specified response is reinforced. It is very useful when a behavior is first being shaped or strengthened.
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Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule Only some responses are reinforced. Four basic schedules Fixed ratio Variable ratio Fixed interval Variable interval
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Fixed Ratio Schedules Reinforcement is contingent upon a fixed, predictable number of responses. Examples: On a fixed ratio 5 schedule (FR 5), a rat has to press the lever 5 times to obtain food. On a FR 50 schedule, a rat has to press the lever 50 times to obtain food. An FR 1 schedule is the same as a CRF schedule.
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Responses to FR Schedules Usually a high rate of response with a short post reinforcement pause (PRP). Example: On an FR 25 schedule, a rat rapidly emits 25 lever presses, munches down the food pellet it receives, and then snoops around before emitting more lever presses. A post reinforcement pause is a short pause following the attainment of each reinforcer. Higher ratio requirements produce longer post reinforcement pauses.
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Variable Ratio Schedules Reinforcement is contingent upon a varying, unpredictable number of responses. Example: On a variable ratio 5 (VR 5) schedule, a rat has to emit an average of 5 lever presses for each food pellet. These can be arranged in a number of ways They generally produce a high and steady rate of response with little or no post reinforcement pause.
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Real Examples of VR Schedules Only some of a cheetah’s attempts at chasing down prey are successful. Only some acts of politeness receive an acknowledgment. Only some CDs that we buy are enjoyable.
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VR Schedules & Maladaptive Behaviors VR schedules help account for the persistence of certain maladaptive behaviors. Example: Gambling - The unpredictable nature of gambling results in a very high rate of behavior.
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Fixed Interval Schedules Reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a fixed, predictable period of time. Example: On a fixed interval 30-second (FI 30-sec) schedule, the first lever press after a 30-second interval has elapsed results in a food pellet. Trying to phone a friend who is due to arrive home in exactly 30 minutes will be effective only after the 30 minutes have elapsed.
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Responses to FI Schedules Responses consist of a post reinforcement pause followed by a gradually increasing rate of response as the interval draws to a close. (the scallop)
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