Ch 10 Choice, Matching and Self Control

Ch 10 Choice, Matching and Self Control - Ch 10 Choice,...

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Ch 10 Choice, Matching and Self Control
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Topics Choice and Matching Bias Melioration Self-Control Skinner Temporal Issue Mischel’s Delay of Gratification
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Choice and Matching The Matching Law the proportion of responses emitted on a particular schedule matches the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule. Example: A pigeon will emit approximately twice as many responses on the VI 30-sec schedule as on the VI 60-sec schedule.
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Conger and Killeen (1974) Study of Matching in Humans They asked volunteers to participate with three others in a discussion session on drug abuse. While the volunteer was talking, the two confederates sat on either side and intermittently expressed approval. They found that the relative amount of time the volunteer looked at each confederate matched the relative frequency of verbal approval delivered by that confederate.
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Bias from Matching when one alternative attracts a higher proportion of responses than would be predicted by matching. regardless of richer or poorer schedule of reinforcement. Example: The matching law predicts that the proportion of responses on the red key should be .67 on the rich schedule and .33 on the poorer schedule. If the proportions instead turned out to be .77 on the rich schedule and .23 on the poor schedule, then bias has occurred.
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Example of Bias from Matching in Humans Erin might spend additional time directing her conversation toward Jason, whom she finds very attractive. On one day, he provides 72% of the reinforcers during a conversation, but she nevertheless looks at him 84% of the time. On another day, he provides only 23% of the reinforcers, but she nevertheless looks at him 36% of the time. In each case, she looks at him more than would be predicted by matching.
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Bias in matching can be used to indicate degree of preference for different reinforcers. Example: On a concurrent VI 60-sec VI 60-sec schedule, the pigeon should respond equally. If each alternative leads to a different reinforcer, the higher response rate or bias toward one schedule may indicate reiforcer preference.
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Example of Preference Although a child might spend little time reading, this does not mean that reading is not a reinforcing activity for that child.
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Ch 10 Choice, Matching and Self Control - Ch 10 Choice,...

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