Ch 11 Biological Dispositions in Learning

Ch 11 Biological Dispositions in Learning - Ch 11...

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Ch 11 Biological Dispositions in Learning
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Topics Preparedness and Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Operant-Respondent Interactions Instinctive Drift Sign Tracking Adjunctive Behavior Activity Anorexia Behavior Systems Theory
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Preparedness & Classical Conditioning innate tendency for an organism to more easily learn certain types of behaviors or to associate certain types of events with each other. Examples: Fear conditioning Taste Aversion Conditioning
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Taste Aversion Conditioning a form of classical conditioning in which a food item that has been paired with gastrointestinal illness becomes a conditioned aversive stimulus. An animal that becomes sick after ingesting a food item associates the food with the illness and subsequently finds it distasteful. Examples: Too much alcohol Rat experiments
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Experiments with Rats on Taste Aversion Conditioning Sweet water: X-ray irradiation Nausea NS US UR Sweet water Nausea (avoidance of water) CS CR The sweet water has become an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS) through its association with illness.
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Stimulus Generalization The food items that taste similar to the aversive item are also perceived as aversive. Example: A conditioned aversion to one type of fish might generalize to other types of fish.
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Extinction if the aversive food item is repeatedly ingested without further illness, the CS (food) may no longer elicit an avoidance response. Example: Drinking alcohol again after it made you sick.
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Overshadowing We are more likely to develop an aversion to a stronger-tasting food item than to a milder- tasting item that was consumed at the same meal. Example: Onions or potatoes
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Blocking Example: If you have already acquired a taste aversion to peas, but force yourself to eat them anyway, and then get sick because of some spoiled fish that was served at the same meal, you will not develop an aversion to the fish. The presence of the peas will block any conditioning occurring to the fish.
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Latent Inhibition We are more likely to associate a relatively novel item with sickness than we would a more familiar item. Example: Latent inhibition helps explain why it is often difficult to poison a rat. When a rat encounters a novel food item, it will most likely eat only a small amount of the item before moving on to other, more familiar items. If the rat later becomes ill, it will associate the illness with the novel item.
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Taste Aversion Conditioning is Different from Other Conditioning The formation of associations over long delays. By contrast, most classical conditioning requires close temporal proximity.
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