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Ch 12 Observational Learning, language and Rule(2)

Ch 12 Observational Learning, language and Rule(2) - Ch 12...

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Ch 12 Observational Learning, language and Rule Governed Behavior
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Topics Observational Learning Stimulus enhancement Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Imitation aggression Language Animals? Sign Language Artificial Language Rule-Governed Behavior Definitions Disadvantages Self-Regulation
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Observational Learning The behavior of a model is witnessed by an observer, and the observer’s behavior is subsequently altered. Observational learning is often referred to as social learning. In this way, we learn a behavior simply by watching others perform it. This type of learning can occur without our even being aware that our behavior has been influenced in this way.
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Contagious Behavior a more-or-less instinctive or reflexive behavior triggered by the occurrence of the same behavior in another individual. Example: You yawn. One by one, each of your classmates also yawn. Autism – mirror neurons One startled duck gets the entire flock started. Laugh tracks in TV shows urge us to laugh. We will orient ourselves towards the direction others are looking.
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Stimulus Enhancement the probability of a behavior is changed because an individual’s attention is drawn to a particular item or location by the behavior of another individual. Example: You notice a candy bowl in the waiting room after a girl comes in and notices it. It is particularly effective for increasing the probability of a behavior associated with eating, drinking, or mating. Mechanical hen, green and orange grain
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Observational Learning in Classical Conditioning Vicarious emotional conditioning is classically conditioning of emotional responses that result from seeing those emotional responses exhibited by others. Expressions of fear in others may act as unconditioned stimuli (US) that elicit the emotion of fear in others. Example: Jellyfish: Look of fear in others Fear in oneself NS US UR Jellyfish Fear in oneself CS CR
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Miller, Caul, Mirsky , 1967 put rhesus monkeys in a situation where they had to read facial expressions to avoid shock first, simple avoidance, light comes on to predict shock. Press lever when light comes on to avoid shock. Then, one monkey can see the light but had no key to press, the other cannot see the light, but has the key. The second monkey could see the first through closed circuit TV. The first monkey would show consistent emotion on its face when the light came on (CS or US?), unknowingly signaling the other monkey who would press the key to avoid the shock. Monkeys raised in isolation could not either make the consistent faces (send the information) nor receive
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Higher Order Conditioning The emotional reactions of others may serve as conditioned stimuli (CSs) rather than USs.
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