Choline Part II 2011(1)

Choline Part II 2011(1) - Perinatal Choline Learning...

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Perinatal Choline Learning Objectives Identify the factors that contribute to an increased use of choline during pregnancy and lactation Identify potential benefits of consuming an adequate amount of choline during the perinatal period Describe the effect of pregnancy on biomarkers of choline metabolism and the potential implications of these changes List some of the consequences of increasing maternal choline intake in third trimester pregnant women Provide a mechanism by which a higher maternal choline intake may be influencing fetal cortisol Appreciate the importance of choline during lactation and the benefits of breastfeeding on infant choline nutriture
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Increased use of choline to support rapid cell division Endogenous synthesis of choline is low in placental tissue and fetal liver Maternal choline supply is critical Maternal Liver Gwee and Sim 1978, 1979
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Control Pregnant Control Pregnant Normal Chow Choline Deficient * Phosphocholine, μ mol/g liver Rats, n=6 8 per treatment group Zeisel et al. 1995 ** Pregnancy decreases maternal choline stores in rats
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0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 <290 290-371 371-498 >498 Choline Intake, mg/d Odds Ratio N=147 Reference N=99 OR=0.66 N=98 OR=0.63 N=80 OR=0.49 Shaw et al. 2004 Higher dietary choline, and higher circulating free choline, are associated with a 50% reduction in neural tube defect risk
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Choline Phosphocholine CDP Choline ATP ADP CTP PPi Phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol CMP Choline Kinase Cytidylyl Transferase Enaw et al. 2006 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 TT TA AA 1.0 1.14 1.85 Cytidylyl Transferase Odds Ratio Genetic variants in choline metabolizing genes modify NTD risk
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Maternal Choline Supplementation Lifelong improved cognitive function Prevents age related cognitive decline Epigenetic Mechanisms Meck, Williams, Cermak, & Blusztajn, 2008
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Choline Hippocampus: Learning and Memory Center of the Brain Meck and Williams 2003; Zeisel 1994, 2006; Albright et al 1999; Niculescu et al 2004; Craciunescu et al. 2004 Hippocampal Neurons Extra prenatal choline increases the number of hippocampal neurons
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Increased use of choline to support rapid cell division Pregnancy depletes maternal choline stores in rats Higher dietary choline, and higher circulating free choline, are associated with a 50% reduction in neural tube defect risk Epigenetic Mechanisms Choline is now being added to foods and nutritional supplements for infants and toddlers “to promote healthy brain development”
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Choline dietary recommendations AI (mg/d) UL (mg/d) Women 425 3500 Pregnant Women 450 3500 Extrapolated from a study conducted in men Based on the amount needed to prevent liver dysfunction Choline concentrations of rat tissues
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2012 for the course NS 441 taught by Professor Caudill during the Fall '11 term at Cornell.

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Choline Part II 2011(1) - Perinatal Choline Learning...

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