Choline Part II 2011(1)

Choline Part II 2011(1) - Perinatal Choline Learning...

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Perinatal Choline Learning Objectives Identify the factors that contribute to an increased use of choline during pregnancy and lactation Identify potential benefits of consuming an adequate amount of choline during the perinatal period Describe the effect of pregnancy on biomarkers of choline metabolism and the potential implications of these changes List some of the consequences of increasing maternal choline intake in third trimester pregnant women Provide a mechanism by which a higher maternal choline intake may be influencing fetal cortisol Appreciate the importance of choline during lactation and the benefits of breastfeeding on infant choline nutriture
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Increased use of choline to support rapid cell division Endogenous synthesis of choline is low in placental tissue and fetal liver Maternal choline supply is critical Maternal Liver Gwee and Sim 1978, 1979
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Control Pregnant Control Pregnant Normal Chow Choline Deficient * Phosphocholine, μ mol/g liver Rats, n=6 8 per treatment group Zeisel et al. 1995 ** Pregnancy decreases maternal choline stores in rats
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0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 <290 290-371 371-498 >498 Choline Intake, mg/d Odds Ratio N=147 Reference N=99 OR=0.66 N=98 OR=0.63 N=80 OR=0.49 Shaw et al. 2004 Higher dietary choline, and higher circulating free choline, are associated with a 50% reduction in neural tube defect risk
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Choline Phosphocholine CDP Choline ATP ADP CTP PPi Phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol CMP Choline Kinase Cytidylyl Transferase Enaw et al. 2006 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 TT TA AA 1.0 1.14 1.85 Cytidylyl Transferase Odds Ratio Genetic variants in choline metabolizing genes modify NTD risk
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