Unformatted text preview: What is Sport? Principles of Sport Management What is Sport?
Sport implies having fun; but it can also apply to: 1. Work (professional jobs, athletes) 2. A means of employment (administrator, GM, Athletic Director) 3. A business (marketing agency, sales agency, facilities development) 1. 2. 3. Multiple participants (team sports/competition) Two participants (dual sports tennis, racquetball, badminton) One participant (individual sports golf, cycling, Xtreme sports, motor sports, surfing) Sport might include: Combination of configurations Team tournaments (wrestling) Olympic games (gymnastics, figure skating) Competitions (XGames, fishing derbies, Ryder Cup) What criteria qualify games or activities to be classified as sport? Loy's Characteristics of Sport Be playlike in nature; Involve some element of competition; Be based on physical prowess; Have an uncertain outcome. Involve skill, strategy and chance; and VanderZwagg's Defintition of Sport "Sport is a competitive physical activity, utilizing specialized equipment and facilities, with unique dimensions of time and space, in which the quest of records is of high significance." Coakley's Definition of Sport "Sports are institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants, motivated by personal enjoyment and external rewards." Is horse or dog racing a sport? Coakley also contends that sport is a distinctive social activity that is frequently the basis of a person's social identity. Pitts, Fielding & Miller's Definition of Sport "Sport is any activity, experience or business enterprise focused on fitness, recreation, athletics or leisure." Therefore, sport doesn't have to be competitive, nor does it always require specialized equipment or rules. Sport would include activities such as working out, dancing, or jogging. Essentially, it's an expansive variety of physical activities and associated business endeavors. New Age Sports Several nontraditional sporting activities have evolved during the 21st century:
Aerobics Snow kayaking Street luge Mountain boarding Inline skating Boogie boarding Ice surfing Varieties of aerobics Shank's Definition of Sport " A source of diversion or physical activity engaged in for pleasure." Sport Management Skills
Planning administrator, coach Organizing tournament director, facilities manager Directing AD, GM, or CEO Coordinating Event manager Controlling game officials, league administrator/commissioner, players, sports lawyers Budgeting business manager, CFO Leading marketing director, Evaluating scouts, academic counselor Sport Management These combination of management skills occur within the context of an organization or department whose primary product or service is related to sport and/or physical activities. Often these individuals work autonomously; but they must also interface with other managers and supervisors to maximize organizational efficiency and productivity. Veley's Top 10 Proficiencies of Sport Management 1. Communications and Public Relations 2. Marketing/Promotions & sales (including fundraising) 3. Psychosocial issues 4. Legalities 5. Ethics and social responsibility (equity) 6. Technology 7. Business/budgeting 8. Ability to interact in a global and multicultural society Critical Thinking (beliefs, dignity toward others) Managing & Motivating personnel and volunteers What is the difference between "Sport" and "Sports"?
Sports implies a collection of separate activities such as golf, baseball, football, hockey, basketball, etc. In other words, items categorized in a series that we can count collectively. Sports can be specific to one category such as motorsports (auto racing, motorcycling, boat racing); or racquet sports (tennis, racquetball, squash, badminton.) Defining "Sport" Sport is an all encompassing concept a collective noun that includes all sporting activities Identify as many categories or "settings" within the sport industry enterprise as you can. VanderZagg's 16 SETTINGS WITHIN THE SPORT ENTERPRISE: School and college sports programs (H.S., SU) Professional sports (NFL, MLS, MLB, NHL, NBA) Amateur sport organizations (NCAA, Big East) Private club sport (golf, tennis, polo) Commercialized sport establishments (bowling alleys, ski resorts, public golf courses) Facilities arenas, stadiums, civic centers, coliseums (Fenway Park, Carrier Dome) Community recreation centers with sport program (YMCA, Boys & Girls Clubs) Industrial sport programs (aerobics, dancing, yoga) Sport Enterprises Sport program in social agencies (CYO, YMCA, Boys & Girls Clubs) Military sport programs (rock climbing, skydiving, extreme sports) Sport marketing and consulting firms (Octagon, IMG) Development programs for sport (AAU, Olympic Development Programs) Corporate sponsors (Gatorade, NIKE, Nextel) Sporting Goods Industry (Wilson, Rawlings) Sport news media (ESPN, Sports Illustrated) Academic programs in sport management Veley's Additional Top 20 Sport Enterprises
Sport Tourism (destination; nostalgia) Sport Hospitality (Legends Hospitality, CenterPlate) Sport Representation firms (CAA; SFX; FAME ) Ticket Brokers and Sales firms (Stub Hub, Aspire Ticket Group) THREE PRODUCT SEGMENTS OF THE SPORT INDUSTRY Sport Performance Segment offered to consumers as a participation or spectatorial product. (school-sponsored athletics, fitness centers, sport camps, professional sports, etc) THREE PRODUCT SEGMENTS OF THE SPORT INDUSTRY Sport Production products needed or desired to produce or to influence the quality of sport performance. (aluminum bats, jogging shoes, titanium golf shafts, college athletic conferences, etc.) THREE PRODUCT SEGMENTS OF THE SPORT INDUSTRY Sport Promotion products offered as tools to promote the sport product. (t-shirts, bobbleheads, giveaway items, print and electronic media, celebrity endorsements, etc.) Economic Impact Model (Meek) Sport entertainment and recreation events, teams, and individual participants; sports and related recreational activities and associated spending. Sport products and services design, testing, manufacturing and distribution of equipment, clothing and instruments. Sport support organizations leagues, law firms and sales and marketing organizations. Associated economic activity is the money spent by participants, spectators and sponsors. Sport Activity Model Firms and organizations that produce sport activities. Firms and organizations that provide products and services to support the production of sport activities. Firms and organizations that sell and trade products related to sport activities. Developing Affinity for Sport
ELEMENT THAT THE TARGET AUDIENCE ALL CAN CONNECT TO. Very often it is based on brand loyalty and positioning the product in the minds of a selected group of consumers (NASCAR/NFL). A SPORT CREATES A COMMON Branding Sport Therefore, effective sport management and marketing principles develop a synergy between fans and sport products that allows a business or one or more of its products to properly associate itself with the sports entity such as a team, an individual player, a conference or a specific sporting event such as a bowl game, gold tournament or fishing derby. ...
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- Fall '10