EE 330 Lect 9 Fall 2011

EE 330 Lect 9 Fall 2011 - EE 330 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication...

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EE 330 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication Technology Part 2
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Technology Files • Design Rules • Process Flow (Fabrication Technology) • Model Parameters (will discuss in substantially more detail after device operation and more advanced models are introduced) Review from Last Time
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Mask Fabrication Epitaxy Photoresist Etch Strip Planarization Deposit or Implant Grow or Apply Wafer Probe Die Attach Wafer Dicing Wire Attach (bonding) Package Test Wafer Fabrication Ship Front End Back End Generic Process Flow Review from Last Time
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Crystal Preparation Source: WEB Review from Last Time
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IC Fabrication Technology Crystal Preparation Masking Photolithographic Process Deposition Etching Diffusion Oxidation Epitaxy Polysilicon Contacts, Interconnect and Metalization Planarization
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Masking Use masks or reticles to define features on a wafer Masks same size as wafer Reticles used for projection Reticle much smaller (but often termed mask) Reticles often of quartz with chrome Quality of reticle throughout life of use is critical Single IC may require 20 or more reticles Cost of “mask set” now exceeds $1million for state of the art processes Average usage 500 to 1500 times Mask costs exceeding 50% of total fabrication costs in sub 100nm processes Serve same purpose as a negative (or positive) in a photographic process Usually use 4X optical reduction - exposure area approx. 860mm 2 ( now through 2022 ITRS 2007 litho, Table LITH3a)
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Masking Lens Reticle Wafer Photosensitized Emulsion Die Site Step and Repeat (stepper) used to image across wafer
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Masking Exposure through reticle
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Masking Mask Features
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Masking Mask Features Intentionally Distorted to Compensated For Wavelength Limitations in Small Features
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IC Fabrication Technology Crystal Preparation Masking Photolithographic Process Deposition Etching Diffusion Oxidation Epitaxy Polysilicon Contacts, Interconnect and Metalization Planarization
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Photolithographic Process Photoresist Viscous Liquid Uniform Application Critical (spinner) Baked to harden Approx 1u thick Non-Selective Types Negative – unexposed material removed when developed Positive-exposed material removed when developed Thickness about 450nm in 90nm process (ITRS 2007 Litho) Exposure Projection through reticle with stepper (scanners becoming popular) Alignment is critical !! E-Bean Exposures
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EE 330 Lect 9 Fall 2011 - EE 330 Lecture 9 IC Fabrication...

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