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Chapter 6

# Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Wind is air in motion that arises...

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Chapter 6 - Wind is air in motion that arises from a variety of forces. - Wind direction is the direction from which the wind is blowing. - Wind associated with Low Pressure systems (Cyclonic, counterclockwise in NH) or High Pressure systems (Anti-cyclonic, clockwise in NH). - Forces are characterized by direction and magnitude. The overall force is the Net Force. - Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that a force exerted on an object (or a parcel of air) of a given mass causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the applied force. F=MA (sum of forces=mass x acceleration). - The Momentum of an object is its mass multiplied by its velocity. - Five different forces combine to move air: o Gravitational Force § Directed downward perpendicular to the ground and is approximately equal to the mass times the gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s2). o Pressure Gradient Force (PGF) § Force resulting from pressure differences over distances in a fluid. § A Pressure Gradient is a change in pressure over a distance. § Always pushes from High Pressure to Low Pressure. § Strong winds almost always result from large pressure gradients. § Isobaric (constant pressure) maps show that the spacing between lines of constant height (isoheights) is proportional to the PGF. (strongest winds are where spacing is at a minimum).

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