# Ocean101-Ch01-02 - ~71% of Earth!s surface is covered with...

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1~71% of Earth!s surface is covered with ocean water.~97% of Earth!s water is in the oceans.“Planet Earth” or “Planet Water”?
2Some Important Concepts inSome Important Concepts inChapter 1Chapter 1The water cycle (hydrologic cycle)Branches of the marine sciences (oceanography)The scientific methodFormation of the universe (Big Bang)Formation of the solar system (gravitational condensation in solar nebula)Formation of Earth (accretion, density stratification)Formation of the oceans & atmosphere (volcanic outgassing, comets)Life on Earth (probably began in the oceans)Other planets and moons (water? oceans?)The Hydrologic (Water) CycleThe Hydrologic (Water) CycleFig. 1.1b, p. 2
3Distribution of the EarthDistribution of the Earth’s water, by relative volumes water, by relative volumeGlobal Water SupplyGlobal Water Supply1 km3= 1 cubic kilometer= a cube that!s 1 km x 1 km x 1 km0.1 = 1/10, 0.01 = 1/100 (centi-), 0.001 (milli-) = 1/1,000, etc.Global Water SupplyGlobal Water SupplyRecharge rate vs. Withdrawal rateRate of pollution vs. Rate of cleaning
4Seattle, Bellevue, and Issaquah 15,000 years agoSeattle, Bellevue, and Issaquah 15,000 years ago
5Thurman & Trujillo, 10th ed.Thurman & Trujillo, 10th ed.
6Fig. 1.4, p. 5Simply put:Simply put:Always ask yourself,Always ask yourself,How do I knowHow do I knowwhat I know?what I know?”andandHow will I knowHow will I knowif Iif I’m wrong?m wrong?”
7The Sun and planets formed by accretionaccretion(smaller particles in the spinning nebular cloud clumping together to form larger objects)Formation of the Solar System: Nebular HypothesisFormation of the Solar System: Nebular HypothesisEagle NebulaEagle Nebula
8Fig. 1-7, p. 8Most of the water is hereWe are hereEarth Accretion and Earth Accretion and “Iron CatastropheIron Catastrophe”Fig. 1.11, p. 11(solid!)
9There was no oxygen(it would be made later by photosynthesis), andthere were methane, ammonia, and high amounts of carbon dioxide.The Early Atmosphere:The Early Atmosphere:Very Different Than TodayVery Different Than Today’sOceans = Volcanic Oceans = Volcanic Outgassing Outgassing + Ice-Rich Comets+ Ice-Rich CometsFig. 1.14b, p. 13Cyanobacteria

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