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Start of final exam material Chapter 9 Social and Emotional Development -Two paths 1. Socialization 2. Personality Formation -Socialization—the process by which children acquire the standards, values, and knowledge of their society -Personality formation—the process through which children develop their own unique patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaving in a wide variety of situations I. Identity Development -Identification -a psychological process in which children try to look, act, feel, and be like significant people in their social environment -Erikson - initiative versus guilt that is, the challenge of continuing to declare their autonomy and existence as individuals, but in ways that behind to conform to the social roles and moral standards of society *Identity Development -Acquisition of sex-roles -ethnic identity -the sense of self -Sex-Role identity: -psychodynamic view -social learning view -cognitive development view -gender schema view -cultural view Psychodynamic view -Sigmund Freud -still influential, even though not always substantiated by evidence -assumes young children are caught in hidden conflicts between their fears and desires -Phallic Stage: -the period around the fourth year when children begin to regard their own genitals as a major source of pleasure -Mental conflicts with same-sex parent -Oedipus complex -Electra complex (look up definitions) -Resolution: -Child identifies with same-sex parent -differentiates self from opposite-sex parent *Social Learning View -Emphasize two processes: -Modeling
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-the process by which children observe and imitate individuals of their own sex -Differential Reinforcement -the process by which girls and boys are differently rewarded for engaging in gender-appropriate behavior *Cognitive Development View -Central Idea: -a child’s own conceptions are central to the formation of sex-role identity -Jean Piaget his belief that a child’s own conceptions are central to the formation of sex role identity that is implied by his theory of cognitive development -Lawrence Kohlberg argues that “the child’s sex-role concepts are the result of the child’s active structuring of their own experience; they are not passive products of social training” -Three stages we will discuses *Kohlberg’s Three Stages 1. Basic Sex-Role identity: -labeling oneself as a boy or girl (by the time they are three) 2. Sex-Role Stability: -understanding the stability of sex roles over time (boys grow to be men, girls to women) 3. Sex-Role Constancy: -understanding their sex remains the same no matter what they situation *Gender Schema View -Includes features of both social learning and cognitive-development theories -Gender Schema Theory believes that the environment affects the child’s understanding indirectly, through a schema, or cognitive structure -once formed, this schema guides the way the child selects and remembers information from the environment, and guides the child to act in gender-appropriate ways -Gender schema: -a mental model containing with information about males and females that is used to
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course FSW 281 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.

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final exam material - Start of final exam material Chapter...

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