This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: FSW 281notes cont. Child Development:-sequence of physical, intellectual, and emotional changes that children will undergo throughout their lifespan IV. Theories of Development-theory plays an important role in developmental science-Theory: a broad conceptual frame work to guide the collection and interpretation of facts *Theoretical Perspectives-Developments is approached from several theoretical perspectives-Four Grand Theories-Four Modern Theories *Four Grand Theories 1. Psychodynamic theories 2. Social Learning theories 3.Piaget's Constructivist theory 4.Vygotsky's sociocultural theory-these theories agree with each other, each add own components to build on each other *Psychodynamic Theories-Perspective: Theories exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of the universal biological drives and life experiences of individuals Key Psychodynamic Theorists:-Sigmund Freud--biological factors- psychosexual stages are associated with the changing focus of the sex drive-these stages end in adolescents (while Erikson's theories continue throughout the lifespan)-Erik Erikson (social factors)-In which psychosocial stages are associated with tasks or crises shaped by social and cultural factors-each stage is associated with a particular tasksource on conflict within the person-main challenge in every persons life is their 'quest for identity'....'who am I?' in each and every stage in their life *Social Learning Theories-Perspective: Theories that focus on development as the result of leaning, behavioral changes resulting from the individual's forming associations between behavior and consequences-example: rewarding a child for using the bathroom during potty training-rewards, reinforce, punishment affecting behavior *Key Learning Theorists John B. Watson- creates fear in the child and tries to remove that fear (mask) B.F. Skinner-operant conditioningbehavior is shaped by consequences Albert Bandura-modeling-Proposed self-efficacy -Persons own beliefs about how they deal with their own environment *Piaget's Constructivist Theory-One of the most influential people in child development science-Piaget's theorycognitive development results from children's active construction of reality based on their experiences with the world-emphasized childrens active role in shaping their own cognitive development-children do not discover, but actively construct reality on the basis of their experiences with the world (constructivist theory)-Concepts:-universal stages of cognitive developmentPiaget believed that children progress through a series of similar cognitive development-changes in schemas through adaption:-over time, as children interact with their environment, they change, strengthen or transform their schemas through adaptation (assimilation and accommodation)-a schema is the most basic unit of cognitive functions:-a schema is a mental structure that provides a model for understanding the world-children are actively constructing the world around them over time...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 01/31/2012 for the course FSW 281 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Miami University.
- Fall '08