Family Studies final outline

Family Studies final outline - 1 Chapter 1 a Ecology...

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1. Chapter 1 a. Ecology: interdisciplinary branch of biology that examines interrelationships between organisms and their environment a.i. To understand parent child relations, must examine context of various environments b. Need for parenting education b.i. Parent to child relationship is most significant and intimate relationships b.ii. Contemporary ideas are result of evolution of ideas and concepts over time b.iii. Parenthood is a developmental role that changes over time, in response to changing developmental needs of children c. Concepts of parenthood c.i. Parents are responsible for nurturing, teaching, and acting as guardians for child c.ii. Infants and children have long period of dependency on adults due to immaturity in brain c.iii. Parents teach child how to behave, a process called socialization: learning how to conform to the conventional ways of behavior in society d. Characteristics of parenthood and parent-child relations d.i. Unidirectional model of socialization: flow of information and teachings is solely from parent to child d.ii. Bidirectional model: adults and children influence one another as their relationship experiences developmental changes over time d.iii. The relationship between parents and children is a subsystem of the larger social system we call family d.iv. Parenthood is a developmental role d.v. Parenthood is a social construct e. Historical changes in parent-child relations e.i. Ancient Rome and Greece e.i.1. Childhood commenced at birth and ended at 5-7 years. A child then assumed the behaviors and expectations of an adult e.i.2. Infants that were deformed, weakly, or undesired were left out, drowned, suffocated e.i.3. Education was for the benefit of the state e.i.4. Women and children were property of adult male e.ii. The middle ages to renaissance e.ii.1. Several generations live together e.ii.2. Assimilation to adult world: 5-7 years old e.ii.3. Education came from observing adult male e.ii.4. Parenting was not a high priority e.iii. Colonial America: 1600-1800 e.iii.1. Stern, strict parenting e.iii.2. Rigorous moral training e.iii.3. Parents thought they had to bring child to religious salvation e.iii.4. Children were squarely in hands of parent
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e.iv. Industrial revolution era 1800-1860 e.iv.1. Three different philosophies e.iv.1.a. Calvinism: stern, harsh use of physical punishment e.iv.1.b. Mothers assumed more responsibilities as fathers were at work for long days e.iv.2. Environmentalism e.iv.2.a. Less harsh punishment e.iv.2.b. Cause-effect view of child rearing e.iv.2.c. Parents played essential role in development of behavior e.iv.3. Early developmentalism e.iv.3.a. Valued obedience but obtained through rewards rather than physical punishment e.v. 20 th century and current trends e.v.1. Use methods of guidance based on psychology rather than physical punishment e.v.2. 2-income family has become the norm e.v.3. Increases in divorce and rise in number of step-families and remarriages f. Configuring the parenthood role
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Family Studies final outline - 1 Chapter 1 a Ecology...

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