1934 nitrogen mustard synthesized 1935 used by italy

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Unformatted text preview: nthesized 1935--used by Italy against Abyssinia 1937--Japan allegedly uses mustard gas against China during invasion of Manchuria 1960's--used by Egypt against Yemen 1980's--extensive use of mustard gas against Iranian soldiers and civilians during Iran-Iraq War Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 9 Characteristics of Chemical Agents Volatility--degree to which a substance vaporizes Persistence--refers specifically to how long the substance stays in the environment and is inversely related to volatility Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 10 Characteristics of Mustard Oily, yellow to dark brown liquid Garlic or mustard odor Considered a persistent agent Is "radiomimetic" Thought to work as an alkylating agent Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 11 Detection Smell M8, M9 paper, various detectors Clinical recognition Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 12 Clinical Effects Skin, Eyes, Respiratory Tract Bone Marrow, GI, CNS in Severe Exposures Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 13 Skin Effects Latent period of several hours after exposure Erythema, then blister formation With high dose, skin sloughing Blister fluid not hazardous Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 14 Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 15 Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 16 Ocular Effects Most often caused by vapor Conjunctival inflammation Corneal damage Severe lid edema Rarely permanent blindness Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 17 Respiratory Effects Vapor induced Upper respiratory tract irritation Dyspnea and productive cough Severe necrotizing tracheobronchitis with pseudomembra...
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