Mustard

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Unformatted text preview: What Agent Caused More Chemical Casualties in World War I Than All Other Chemical Agents Combined? What chemical agent caused over 5000 known casualties as recently as the 1980's and was also used on civilian populations including children? What chemical agent is in the arsenals of at least a dozen countries around the globe and ready to use against a perceived enemy? MUSTARD Clifton E. Yu, MD LTC, MC Department of Pediatrics Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 4 Vesicants Agent that causes vesicles or blisters Main vesicant in production today: sulfur mustard Lewisite and Phosgene Oxime (CX) also classified as vesicants--lesser availability and history of use Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 5 Mustard--Why So Important? No antidote Causes lots of morbidity Relatively easy to synthesize Delayed symptoms Children more susceptible to its toxic effects Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 6 History 1000 B.C.--arsenic smokes used by Chinese against invading Mongol tribes 423 B.C.--Spartans used burning sulfur and coal smoke to attack Athenians in Peloponnesian War 1854--sulfur mustard first synthesized 1917--chlorine, phosgene, and particularly mustard used by both British and Germans resulting in thousands of casualties Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 7 Clifton Yu, MD Department of Pediatrics Walter Reed Army Medical Center 8 History (cont.) 1934--nitrogen mustard sy...
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